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MBA論文代寫-resist change

MBA論文代寫

為什么人們會抵制工作中的變化?如何從人力資源的角度克服這種阻力?

Why do people resist change at work and how can this resistance be overcome from an HR perspective?

1. Introduction

<标题>Change is a common feature of the workplace. This paper examines why people resist change at work. It then explores how this resistance can be surmounted from an HR viewpoint.

2. Resistance to change at work

From research into individual and organisational behaviour, it is well established that people at work can sometimes resist change (Robbins, 1992). The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) define resistance to change at work as “an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2) and argue that, in general, resistance to change in the workplace occurs in two ways: “resistance to the content of change” and “resistance to the process of change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2).

<标题>The reasons for resistance to change at work are numerous. Resisting change enables stability and for the status quo at work to be maintained (Robbins, 1992). Change jeopardises the comfort zones and security of employees who are risk averse and who like familiarity (Holbeche, 2001). The fear of the unknown may result in resistance to change (Robbins, 1992). There may be resistance when change appears to threaten someone’s income (Robbins, 1992). Change can appear threatening to the individual worker when it is foisted on them top down without their input as they do not feel in control (Holbeche 2001).

Gifford et al (2012), in their review of change programmes in NHS South of England, found that “many people do embrace change, but it is easy to feel undermined or threatened by it, even if one accepts at a broad level that change is needed. As well as the challenge of embracing new ways of working, it can be hard to let go of the old ways. Not only do people have ingrained habits and ways of thinking; they also become skilled in familiar work and may feel that their credibility is based upon it. For example, if someone spends years honing skills in a specific procedure and is then told they should be using a completely different technique, this may cut at their sense of self worth” (Gifford et al, 2012, p. 15).

Thus, there may be resistance if a person’s perception of how the world of work should be is threatened. Robbins (1992) explains that “individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact” (Robbins, 1992, p.281).

Psychologists have studied resistance to change and it has been recognised that change may involve a significant shift for the individual, like a bereavement, where what was once certain is no longer so and they have to relinquish the familiar in order to be able to embed change (Holbeche, 2001).

The psychological contract is an important consideration when looking at resistance to change at work. Guest and Conway (2002) defined the psychological contract as “the perceptions of both parties to the employment relationship, organisation and individual, of the reciprocal promises and obligations implied in that relationship” (Guest and Conway, 2002, p.22). The CIPD (2005) argue that the psychological contract is “now best seen as a tool that can help employers negotiate the inevitable process of change so as to achieve their business objective without sacrificing the support and co-operation of employees along the way” (CIPD, 2005, p.4).

CIPD (2005) commented that people expected commitments made to them by management to be honoured and that management should make the effort to do so. Where management is not able to honour a commitment, attempts should be made, however difficult, to explain why and its impact on the employee. A breach of the psychological contract is likely to result in employees having a negative attitude to their employer which would include resistance to change. A case study at a Scottish manufacturing plant, where employees believed that the psychological contract had been breached by the employer, noted that the regular imposition of change programmes had resulted in a high level of cynicism amongst supervisors and shop floor staff (Pate, Martins and Staines 2000).

<标题>If there is a lot of organisational change in a workplace, it is likely to be negatively received by its staff (CIPD, 2005;Guest and Conway 2001). Furthermore, where there is frequent change, it is likely to result in staff believing that management do not know what they are doing and their trust in them declines (CIPD 2005) (Guest and Conway 2001).

<标题>In spite of all the above, research into change management reveals that there are things that can be done to alleviate resistance to change.

3. Overcoming resistance to change: the HR viewpoint

3.1 Adopt a positive approach to resistance at work

<标题>Resistance to change can be a cue for stakeholders in an organisation to have a meaningful debate about the merits of the proposed change. This may lead to amendments and improvements to the change (Robbins 1992).

3.2 The need to understand why change is happening

Research has shown that it is important for staff to understand why change is happening in terms how it will benefit the business and ideally how will it benefit them.

<标题>In the Gifford et al (2012) review of change programmes across the NHS South of England, it concluded that “leaders need to sell the benefits of the change. To do this they need to express their vision in a way that makes it easy for stakeholders to relate it to the purpose and values of the NHS and to their own principles and motivations” (Gifford et al., 2012, p.5). Gifford et al (2012) added that “purpose and vision [of the change programme] are crucial factors” (Gifford et al., 2012, p. 51) that should be communicated in many ways to make sure the message connects with the stakeholders.

In redundancy situations, Holbeche (2001) discovered that there was a “link between the perceived reason for the delayering and the effect on employees. If people thought that the reason for the delayering was simply cost cutting, their morale and motivation tended to be more adversely affected than where there appeared to be a more ‘strategic’ reason for the change” (Holbeche, 2001, 367).

3.3 Communication

Communication plays a critical part in helping staff understand why change is happening and in feeling engaged in the change process. Internal communication mechanisms which enable staff to feel empowered and involved are key to minimising resistance. Two way communication mechanisms like attitude surveys can be effective, but only if visible changes arise as a result (Holbeche, 2001). Other forms of communication that can help are senior management presentations (where questions can be asked and answered), road shows, team briefings and management cascades, question and answer mechanisms (for example by email) and internal newsletters (Holbeche, 2001).

Communication should ideally involve an element of being two way and should include all stakeholders. The CIPD (2005) found that top down communiques by senior managers were perhaps the most ineffectual way of delivering important messages to staff. Mission statements were slightly more effectual, but the most successful way of reaching staff with messages that they are likely to believe is through line managers (CIPD, 2005).

In recent times, storytelling, narratives and theatre have been used in change situations as innovative ways of communicating with staff in order to get them engaged and involved. These methods allow for a move away from top down senior management communication (Daley and Browning, 2014, Dennis, 2010, Thomas and Northcote, 2012).

<标题>Formal communication, in times of change, should:

  • Inform – about the organizational/ personal implications
  • Clarify – the reason for the change, the strategy and benefits
  • Provide direction – about the emerging vision, values and desired behaviours
  • Focus – on immediate work priorities and actions, together with medium term goals
  • Reassure – that the organisation will treat them [staff] with respect and dignity” (Holbeche, 2001, p.368).

3.4 Staff engagement

<标题>Those affected by the change need to feel engaged so that they believe that they are invested in the change. This can be time consuming and difficult for those leading the change (CIPD 2005, Gifford et al. 2012). Engagement can mean getting staff to buy into change that has already been devised or it can mean getting staff involved in actually designing the change (Gifford et al., 2012). Leaders need to be clear about what level of engagement is being offered as unfulfilled expectations risk demotivating staff and weakening good will. (Gifford et al, 2012).

<标题>Bearing in mind the psychological contract, the CIPD (2005) argue that managing change well involves getting employees’ buy-in and making sure that they are not caught unawares. Employees want fair treatment and it is important that they believe that they can trust management. As stated earlier, if employees’ expectations are not to be met, the reason why should be explained by management (CIPD, 2005).

3.5 Leadership

Those in leadership positions in the organisation have to act as role models for change to be successful. If the behaviour of the leaders in an organisation is at odds with their verbal utterances in a change situation, it can result in cynicism in staff and thus resistance to change.

<标题>Holbeche (2001) reports of a case study where company directors were charged with leading an organisational change involving paying particular attention to the customer. The directors talked to staff about the importance of the organisation’s values, especially teamwork. However, staff knew that the senior leadership team did not work well as a team and thus, the change message was being met with cynicism. When the Chief Executive took drastic action and threatened to punish the directors financially, that was when the directors became serious about role modelling good team work and effective leadership. As a result, the change message became believable to staff.

3.6 Apply learning from neuroscience

<标题>Dowling (2014) explored the connection between neuroscience and change management. He found that neuroplasticity, the concept of the adult brain being able to change through specific activity and experiences, was applicable in change situations, if it was self-directed by the individual employee. He advised that employers should give their employees the latitude to have their own insights into the proposed change and that this would allow new neural pathways to be formed in the employees’ brain, making sustainable change possible.

Downing (2014) also explored the impact of threat and reward on employees’ behaviour. He argued that when a person is faced with a perceived threat, the brain has an inbuilt defence mechanism which is activated. This provides some explanation as to why there is resistance at work when an employee feels threatened. This argument reinforces the need for those leading the change to emphasize the benefits of the proposed change so that the employee’s brain reward response is activated as opposed to their threat response.

Downing (2014) additionally looked at habit and how the prefrontal cortex of the human brain (the advanced cognition brain area) operates primarily on the basis of habit, otherwise it would be using a huge amount of energy which would not be sustainable. During periods of change, when individuals are being required to adopt new habits, a heavy burden is potentially being placed on the prefrontal cortex. When designing change programmes, there needs to be an awareness of the brain’s limited capacity for change (Downing, 2014, Scarlett, 2013).

3.7 HR

HR has a pivotal role to play in staff communication and engagement as well as in planning change effectively, including taking into account the learnings from neuroscience. There has to be a real partnership between the business and HR for change to be effective. HR plays a role in assisting, developing and supporting those in leadership positions to be effective in their roles so as not to undermine the success of the change programme and engender resistance to change (Holbeche, 2001, CIPD, 2005, Gifford et al., 2012).

4. Conclusion

<标题>Although resistance to change is something that occurs in the workplace for many understandable reasons, it can be minimised by good communication and staff engagement, explaining the need for change in terms of its benefits to the business and to the individual member of staff, learning from research, effective leadership as well as HR working well with the business and being an integral part of the change. Overcoming resistance at work matters, as while resistance is occurring, it may result in negative consequences such as having a negative impact on performance and productivity, creating an environment for turf wars at work as well as demoralising and demotivating staff (Holbeche, 2001,Robbins 1992, Cannon and McGee 2008, Hughes, 2010).

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工程論文代寫-改變世界的波音747

工程論文代寫

Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet: The aircraft that changed the world

Introduction

In the early days of commercial airline transport, air travel saw a large increase in travellers and airport congestion rising in the 1960s. This era of commercial airline travel was led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and the Douglas DC-8, both of which had revolutionized the standard for long-distance travel. With the increase of commercial airline passengers and the relatively small aircrafts available at the time, airport congestion was becoming a major problem in the industry. Juan Trippe, of Pan Am (Pan American World Airways), one of the Boeing’s most important airline customers thought this problem could be addressed by a newer and larger aircraft.

在商業航空運輸的早期階段,因航空旅行導致的擁堵情況,在20世紀60年代大幅增加。這個商業航空旅行的時代是由波音707和道格拉斯DC-8的巨大普及引領的,這兩者都徹底改變了長途旅行的標準。隨著商用航空公司乘客和當時可用的相對較小的飛機的增加,機場擁堵成為該行業的主要問題。來自Pan Am(泛美航空公司)的Juan Trippe是波音最重要的航空公司客戶之一,他們認為這個問題可以通過制造更新更大的飛機解決。

During the summer of 1965 on a quiet fishing trip in Alaska, Bill Allen of Boeing and Juan Trippe of Pan Am, the two biggest names in the aviation industry at the time, Trippe told Allen of his vision for a super plane. Trippe wanted an aircraft that was two and a half times larger than any other passenger aircraft that had ever existed before. Both Trippe and Allen were reaching retirement, and both wanted to leave their mark in the aviation industry. It was at this point when the birth story of the Boeing 747 began and would change the aviation industry forever.

<标题>1965年夏天,在阿拉斯加安靜的釣魚之旅中,波音公司的 Bill Allen 和泛美航空公司的 Juan Trippe(當時是航空業的兩大知名人士), Trippe 告訴 Allen他對超級飛機的看法。 Trippe 想要的飛機,比以前所有的客機大兩倍半。當時,Trippe和Allen都退休了,他們都想在航空業留下自己的印記。正是在這一時刻,波音747的誕生故事才開始,并將永遠改變航空業。

Development

In April 1966, Trippe had signed for an order for 25 of the newly proposed super jets and for them to be called the 747. This was one the largest aircraft orders ever to be made in history. This costs for this order at the time came to a total of approximately US$525 million dollars which translates to a value of a staggering US$4.2 billion dollars today. Allen had also agreed that Trippe could have his order in just a mere 28 months. This had set an almost impossible challenge for Boeing’s engineers to complete.

1966年4月,Trippe 簽署了25架新提出的超級噴氣式飛機的訂單,并將其命名為747.這是有史以來規模最大的飛機訂單之一。這筆訂單當時的成本總計約為5.25億美元,相當于今天價值驚人的42億美元。Allen也認為可以在短短28個月內完成訂單。這為波音公司的工程師們,制定了幾乎不可能的挑戰。

<标题>Joe Sutter, a young aeronautical engineer whom graduated from the University of Washington in 1943 was transferred from Boeing’s 737 development team to lead and manage the team for the development and design of the new 747 as the Chief Engineer. This was Sutter’s first big break as an engineer. With a small team of only 20 members, Sutter and his team were required to go through preliminary studies for this aircraft which provided them with their first challenge for the development of the 747 as at the time all they knew was that the aircraft had to be bigger, have good range and go as fast as possible. Back then, Sutter was only a junior engineer in the company and often faced a hostile reception from the more senior engineers of the company. Despite the size of the project Sutter and his team were facing and how they were working around the clock, they were still not Boeing’s number one priority. At the time, the development of the 747 was overshadowed by the development of a supersonic transport aircraft in which Boeing believed would be the future of the aviation industry. This meant that Boeing’s best talent and resources was directed into the development of this aircraft.

Joe Sutter是一位年輕的航空工程師,1943年畢業于華盛頓大學,他被從波音737開發團隊調來,負責領導和管理團隊,負責開發和設計新747作為總工程師。這是Sutter作為工程師的第一次重大突破。由于只有20名成員的小團隊,Sutter和他的團隊對這架飛機進行了初步研究,這是747制造的第一個挑戰,因為他們只知道飛機必須更大更快。那時候,Sutter只是該公司的一名初級工程師,經常面臨高級工程師的敵意。當時,747的發展被超音速運輸機的發展所掩蓋,波音認為這將成為航空工業的未來。這意味著波音公司最好的人才和資源被用于開發這架飛機。

<标题>A supersonic transport aircraft that was designed to travel at three times the speed of sound and to compete with its European supersonic rival, Concorde, which was also in its development stage. When the supersonic transport aircraft was to be completed and come into service, Boeing’s 747 would then be relegated to shipping freight. This influenced the design of the 747 so that it be adapted easily to carry freight and heavy cargo and to remain in production even if the sales of the passenger version were to decline. Because of this, the 747 was almost expected to be an afterthought and Boeing didn’t expect for more than 50 of the 747s to be made and until the supersonic aircraft was completed, the 747 was playing second fiddle the whole time. This lead to Sutter and his team being shoved into old premises and starved of resources making their challenge even more difficult than before.

這是一種超音速運輸機,將以三倍音速飛行,并與歐洲超音速對手協和飛機競爭,后者也處于發展階段。當超音速運輸機完成并投入使用后,波音747將被降級為運輸機。這影響了747的設計,因此即使乘客版本的銷量下降,它也可以輕松適應運輸貨物和重貨,并保持生產。波音公司沒有預料到超過50架的747飛機將被制造出來,直到超音速飛機完成。

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計算機論文代寫范文- GSM Communication

gsm communication

Introduction

GSM is a connection between two people ? a caller and the called person – is the basic service of all telephone networks. To apply this service, the network must has ability to set up and maintain a call, which includes some tasks: identifying the called person, determining the location, routing the call, and ensuring that the connection is continued until conversation lasts. After the transaction, the connection is terminated.

GSM是兩個人之間的連接:呼叫者和被叫人,它是所有電話網絡的基本服務。要應用此服務,網絡必須能夠設置和維護呼叫,其中包括一些任務:識別被叫人,確定位置,路由呼叫以及確保連接一直持續到對話持續。在事務之后,連接終止。

In a fixed telephone network, providing and managing connections is an easy process, because telephones are connected by wires to the network and their location is permanent from the networks’ point of view. Whereas, in a mobile network, the establishment of a call is more complex task, because it doesn’t have wire and permanent location. It enables the users to move by wireless (radio) connection.

<标题>在固定電話網絡中,提供和管理連接是一個簡單的過程,因為電話通過電線連接到網絡,并且從網絡的角度來看它們的位置是永久性的。然而,在移動網絡中,建立呼叫是比較復雜的任務,因為它沒有線路和永久位置。它使用戶能夠通過無線(無線電)連接進行移動。

What is GSM?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication and is an open, digital cellular technology transmits mobile voice and data services. It is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used technology in the world. The GSM market has more than 70 percent of the world’s digital cellular subscribers. The GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals. The GSM was developed by using digital technology. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates.

<标题>GSM代表全球移動通信系統,是一種開放的數字蜂窩技術,可傳輸移動語音和數據服務。它是一種數字移動電話系統,是世界上廣泛使用的技術。GSM市場擁有全球70%以上的數字蜂窩用戶。GSM利用窄帶時分多址(TDMA)技術發送信號。GSM是使用數字技術開發的。它能夠承載64 kbps至120 Mbps的數據速率。

GSM operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band. In Europe, operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands and in US, operates 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands. The GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots.

GSM工作在900  MHz  或1800 MHz頻段。在歐洲,運行在900MHz和1.8GHz頻段,在美國,運行1.9GHz和850MHz頻段。GSM是一個電路交換系統,它將每個200 kHz信道分成8個25 kHz時隙。

Cell phones use GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area. GSM carriers have roaming contacts with other GSM carriers and typically cover rural areas more completely. GSM also has the advantage of using SIM (subscriber identity module) cards. The SIM card, which acts as your digital identity, is tied to your cell phone service carrier’s network rather than to the handset itself. This allows for easy exchange from one phone to another without new cell phone service activation.

手機通過搜索附近區域的手機信號塔來使用GSM網絡。GSM運營商與其他GSM運營商具有漫游聯系,并且通常更全面地覆蓋農村地區。GSM還具有使用SIM卡。SIM卡作為您的數字身份,與您的手機服務運營商的網絡相關聯,而不是與手機本身相關聯。這樣可以在不激活新手機服務的情況下輕松地從一部手機更換到另一部手機。

Today, more than 690 mobile networks provide GSM services across 213 countries and GSM represents 82.4% of all global mobile connections. According to GSM World, there are now more than 2 billion GSM mobile phone users worldwide. GSM World references China as “the largest single GSM market, with more than 370 million users, followed by Russia with 145 million, India with 83 million and the USA with 78 million users.”

如今,超過690個移動網絡在213個國家提供GSM服務,GSM占全球移動連接的82.4%。據GSM World稱,目前全球有超過20億的GSM手機用戶。GSM World將中國稱為“最大的單一GSM市場,擁有超過3.7億用戶,其次是俄羅斯,有1.45億,印度有8300萬,美國有7800萬用戶。”

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人力資源論文代寫范文- 華為文化沖突

華為

<标题>The Human Resources Challenge of Huawei —- Cultural clash

Introduction

Background of Huawei

In 1987, Ren Zhengfei, then 44 years old, founded a telecom equipment-trading firm in Shenzhen, China, with startup capital of CNY 21,000. By the end of 2014, Huawei had 170,000 employees in more than 170 countries and regions, serving more than one-third of the world’s population, and leading the world in international patent applications. Over 30 years, it has grown to become the largest telecom company in the world. As well as that, it has operations and representative offices in more than 100 countries and serves over 1 billion users worldwide. Huawei’s success boils down to two fundamental elements: the changing technology environment and the creativity of its people, so we can realize that employees play a very important role in Huawei and the human resources management is very crucial to Huawei.

<标题>1987年,44歲的任正非在中國深圳成立了一家電信設備貿易公司,啟動資金為21,000元人民幣。截至2014年底,華為在170多個國家和地區擁有17萬名員工,服務于全球三分之一以上的人口,在國際專利申請方面處于世界領先地位。30多年來,它已發展成為世界上最大的電信公司。除此之外,它還在100多個國家設有運營和代表處,為全球10億用戶提供服務。華為的成功歸結為兩個基本要素:不斷變化的技術環境和人員的創造力, 對華為來說至關重要的是,讓員工認識到員工在華為和人力資源管理中扮演著非常重要的角色。

Human resources challenges of Huawei

<标题>According to Fang Lee Cooke (The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2012, p.1845), there are several challenge to HRM in host countries and management responses of Huawei. First, because salaries are based on performance levels, inexperienced local new hires may have lower wages. Second, unlike local employment laws, as foreign companies, they need to comply more strictly with these laws than China. Third, how to strike a balance between employee development and cost-effective employee disbursement is sometimes a dilemma because HCN employees need training and development opportunities and then leave more famous Western multinationals. Fourth, multiculturalism and diversity management is another issue. Huawei may be one of the few Chinese companies that actively adopt the concept of multiculturalism and diversity management. Fifth, the lack of approval from local employees and their employers and the lack of acceptance of the corporate culture of Chinese enterprises are a double challenge to the issue of retention.

<标题>Fang Lee Cooke(國際人力資源管理雜志,2012年,p.1845)指出,人力資源管理面臨著一些挑戰,華為的管理層也作出了回應。首先,由于工資是基于績效水平的,缺乏經驗的本地新員工的工資可能更低。其次,與當地的就業法不同,作為外國公司,他們需要比中國更嚴格地遵守這些法律。第三,如何在員工發展和成本效益的員工支付之間取得平衡,有時是一個兩難的選擇,因為HCN員工需要培訓和發展機會,然后離開更著名的西方跨國公司。第四,多元文化和多樣性管理是另一個問題。華為可能是少數幾個積極采用多元文化和多元化管理理念的中國公司之一。第五,缺乏當地員工及其雇主的認可,對中國企業的企業文化缺乏接受,是對留用問題的雙重挑戰。

The key challenge

Cultural clash is one of the key human resources aspects that affected Huawei. Huawei as a multinational company, the objective existence of the company’s internal cultural differences, is bound to cause cultural conflicts in the enterprise. As the process of global integration accelerates and the flow of human resources in multinational enterprises like Huawei continues to accelerate, this cultural friction will increase day by day and gradually begin to manifest itself in the internal management and external operation of transnational corporations, resulting in the loss of market opportunities for transnational corporations and the inefficiency of the organizational structure and make the implementation of the global strategy in trouble. Therefore, this essay will attempt to demonstrate how the Huawei can solve this problem and develop better for its brighter future using human resources management practices.

文化沖突是影響華為的關鍵人力資源因素之一。華為作為一家跨國公司,客觀上存在著公司內部的文化差異,勢必會在企業內部引發文化沖突。隨著全球一體化進程的加快和華為等跨國企業人力資源流動的不斷加快,這種文化摩擦將日益加劇,并逐漸在跨國公司的內部管理和外部經營中顯現出來。導致跨國公司失去市場機會,組織結構效率低下,使全球戰略的實施陷入困境。因此,本文試圖通過人力資源管理的實踐,來說明華為如何解決這一問題,更好地發展自己的未來。

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marketing論文代寫范文-消費者支出增長對經濟衰退的影響

M&S Marketing essay

Select a retail sector with which you are familiar. What is the likely impact on the sector of a downturn in the growth of consumer spending- What strategies should a (named) retailer in the sector adopt to minimise the threat?

消費者支出增長對經濟衰退可能有什么影響? 選擇您熟悉的零售行業。該行業的(指定)零售商采取什么策略來減少威脅?

Following the financial and economic crisis in 2007, the reduction in consumer spending had a significant impact upon major high street fashion brands including Marks and Spencer, which saw sales and profitability fall significantly. In response to this, M&S adopted a strategy of contraction, which entailed the closure of a number of stores, particularly in the Simply Foods outlet sector. However, despite the fact that this ostensibly led to a reduction of costs, it can be argued that this approach also had an adverse effect upon the marketing mix and competitive advantage of the business. This was proven by the fact that M&S lost market share as a result of this strategy while other fashion stores, such as Primark and Zara maintained their growth pattern through this period.

<标题>在2007年的金融和經濟危機之后,消費者支出的減少,對包括Marks and Spencer在內的主要高街時尚品牌產生了重大影響,其銷售和盈利能力大幅下降。為此,瑪莎百貨( M&S )采取了收縮策略,包括關閉一些商店,特別是在Simply Foods的直銷店。然而,盡管這顯然降低了成本,但這種方法也對營銷組合和企業的競爭優勢產生了不利影響。事實證明,由于這一戰略,M&S失去了市場份額,而Primark和Zara等其他時裝店在此期間保持了增長模式。

<标题>It is considered that the strategy M&S should have adopted should have been based upon a more proactive approach. In this respect, there are two elements that the corporation needed to address. The first of these is to ensure that a policy of value chain management is re-enforced, which would reduce costs and therefore prices, while at the same time allowing the business to maintain its profitability levels. For example, had the marketing message for M&S been more focused upon delivering consumer savings rather than news of store closures, which forces additional cost on the consumer in terms of travelling to the store, it is likely that consumer loyalty would have been maintained at a higher level. Secondly, there was a need to ensure, through appropriate marketing research, that the products being offered met with the changing demands and needs of the consumer during this period. Similarly, it is likely that had the marketing focus for the business during this period been more directed towards lower cost elements and savings available to the consumer that this would have also contributed in maintaining its market share within the fashion sector. In other words, the corporation needed to adopt a proactive rather than reactive approach to marketing during the economic downturn.

M&S應該采用更積極主動的策略。在這方面,公司需要解決兩個問題。第一個是確保重新實施價值鏈管理政策,這將降低成本,從而降低價格,同時允許企業維持其盈利水平。例如,如果M&S的營銷信息更側重于提供消費者儲蓄,而不是關閉商店,這會導致消費者在前往商店方面產生額外成本,那么消費者的忠誠度可能會保持在更高層次。其次,有必要通過適當的市場調查確保所提供的產品在此期間滿足了消費者不斷變化的需求。同樣,在此期間,企業的營銷重點可能更多地針對消費者可獲得的低成本要素,這也有助于維持其在時尚領域的市場份額。換句話說,在經濟衰退期間,公司需要采取主動而非被動的營銷方法。

<标题>There is strong movement amongst supermarkets to buy in consumer products which are not traditional supermarket lines (e.g., TV sets). The supermarkets do not carry a full range of these items and are not committed to carrying them all the time. What are the strategic reasons for this kind of activity? What are the risks?

<标题>超市之間的強勢運動是購買非傳統超市系列(例如電視機)的消費產品。超市不提供所有這些物品,也不承諾供給。這種活動的戰略原因是什么?有什么風險?

Over recent decades, Supermarkets in the UK have continued to diversify the range and scope of the products and services they offer to their customers. This has included an expansion into non-food products, such as technology and entertainment goods, home furnishings and even the inclusion of service based products, such as banking and insurance offerings.

<标题>近幾十年來,英國超市不斷擴大其向客戶提供的產品和服務范圍。這包括非食品產品,例如技術和娛樂產品,家居用品,甚至包括服務類產品,例如銀行和保險產品。