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論文中商業案例分析有哪些常用模型?

案例分析

論文案例分析,通常是以某個企業為特定研究對象,就其成功經營經驗或失敗教訓進行深度調研分析,總結出可供其他企業參考借鑒的理論與方法。通過寫作案例分析型論文,同學們能夠運用所學理論技術進行某一專題性研究,能夠選擇和運用各種不同的研究方法,幫助同學們熟悉數據收集和運用的技巧,使同學們能夠運用所掌握的知識和技術解決具體問題,提高實際工作恩能夠力。那么,我們才能完成一篇高質量的案例分析型論文呢,下面我將為大家一一道來。

<标题>完成一篇高質量的案例分析論文,我們首先要了解案例分析的三個主要過程,即大綱。一般來講,案例分析主要包含三個過程

1 辨識和分析問題(identification and analysis of issues and problems),即:具體表現為研究課題,需要解決的問題,需要回答的問題。

2 結果和解決方案討論(Finding and evaluating solutions)

3 建議(recommendations)

<标题>以上三個主要過程也是正文的主題部分;作為正文的主題,同學們在寫作的過程中需要做到以下三個方面:

著眼全局,核心要素是基礎

不少同學在寫案例分析時,容易犯的一個問題是,拿到老師發下來的案例文章就從第一個字開始翻譯,眼前只有一個一個的單詞和句子,至于全文重點在講什么,則完全沒有概念。

正確的做法是,首先提煉整個研究案例的核心構成要素,對于商業研究案例來講,一般至少包括如下幾點:案例涉及企業所在的經濟背景,問題的引入與提出,案例的主要對象,案例調研的方法,結果,結論和建議。只要按這個基本要素構成,把案例文章的核心信息整理出來,就不需要關注每個單詞和句子,就能抓住文章絕大多數的內容。一個比較有用的技巧便是,將有關案例文章的executive summary按照意群進行分解,然后對照上述items列出框架,再到案例理里面尋找每個部分對應的信息,補充道分解后的summary中,這樣你就能快速掌握這篇案例的基本要素,達到事半功倍的效果。

注重邏輯推理

<标题>邏輯推理能力是同學們科學素養訓練中的一個薄弱環節,他們解決老師指派任務的特定問題的能力很強,掌握新技術的能力也不錯,但是對于獨自從已有大量數據中推理出科學問題,卻是一籌莫展,這是邏輯推理能力欠佳的表現。

案例正文的敘述,要做到全面,周密,客觀。

<标题>避免加入個人主觀分析評價。案例正文中的內容也可以根據編寫適當標注。此外,盡量加入一些圖表,圖片,以加深讀者對案例的理解。

<标题>下面是以商科為例,對案例分析報告寫作步驟進行的一個簡單說明,以便同學們能夠更加直觀的了解如何成功的完成一篇案例分析論文:

步驟1(step1)

所要分析對象(企業)的背景信息和其發展狀況(Background information about the institution and its development over time): 公司的年度報告(了解公司結構,管理結構,員工,收入,支出,利潤,成本和支撐結構(about the structure of the company, management structure, employees, income, profit, costs));被分析企業使用的各種發展戰略( different developmental strategies that have been used in this particular institution);決策過程(decision making process); 被分析企業所在的競爭環境(the institutional competitive environment);企業的顧客(the customers of the enterprises); 非常重要的一點,企業內發生的主要事件(main issues that occurred within the institution (very important))例如,如果,我們分析“OPM strategy、financial flexibility and Risk management——case study on Suning&Guomei”, 那么我們說明此案例的背景時,應該如下述所寫:

營運資本管理屬于企業財務管理的研究范疇,營運資本對企業來說非常重要,一個良好的營

運資本管理戰略是保障企業生存和發展的必要條件和基礎。我國真正開始興起營運資本管理是上世紀九十年代,之后我國學者對營運資本的研究日益增多,營運資本管理也取得了重大進步。 隨著國內經濟的高速發展,營運資本管理的 OPM(other people’s money,簡稱OPM) 戰略開始出現,近些年來,在國家宏觀調控和抑制通脹的背景下,OPM 戰略越來越受到企業的青睞,得到了各大企業的廣泛關注和應用。OPM 戰略作為一種創新型的資本運營戰略,會對企業產生非常重要的影響。然而在企業廣泛應用 OPM 戰略的同時,學術界對 OPM 戰略的研究存在不足。雖有學者對OPM 戰略、財務彈性、風險控制等進行了一定的研究,但與財務彈性相關的研究對象比較局限,而與風險控制相關的研究也并不全面。另一方面,企業對 OPM 戰略認識不足。存在相當一部分的企業只關注實施 OPM 戰略能夠提高財務彈性,增加企業盈利,但是卻忽視了實施 OPM戰略會給企業帶來的風險。

<标题>當然我這里只是給出簡單的事例,事實上,需要寫什么,寫多少,要根據同學們自己文章的具體需要來定,具體的寫作方法可以參照小編上述說明的背景寫作方法。

步驟2 (step2)

首先利用SWOT analysis分析企業的優勢與劣勢(Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the institution —SWOT analysis):擬稿公司的優勢與劣勢;分析企業面對的機遇與挑戰(identify threats and opportunities for the institution)

進行SWOT分析時,應盡量將各項相關數據與條件詳細列入,以利進一步的分析與探討。舉例來說:

優勢(S<标题>trengths)部份可列出企業之核心競爭優勢,如:擁有哪些致勝的新技術;

劣勢(Weaknesses)部份則可以考慮企業有哪些較弱的層面,如:有哪些力有未逮之處;

機會(Opportunities)部份可仔細思量,在市場環境中將有哪些有利條件,有助企業營運發展,如:隨著潮流的演變,將有哪些新商機;

威脅(Threats)部份則可觀察競爭對手或政府財經政策面有哪些改變,可能威脅到企業之生存,如:哪些政經環境改變將對企業造成負面的影響。

由此可知,進行SWOT分析除了可以增進企業或自己了解本身的優勢與有利機會,同時亦可進一步迫使企業或自己注意到本身的弱點與所面對的威脅,如此一來,將可在「知己知彼」并掌握大環境趨勢變化下,督促企業或自己在既有的基礎上,正視本身的短處與面臨的潛在危機,并加以改進與補強,以強化企業或個人之競爭優勢。

步驟3. (step3)分析企業所在的一般環境(Evaluate the environments of the institution),包括宏觀和微觀環境,具體見下圖:

步驟4(step4)在分析中,利用不同的模型,以便為提高環境提出建議

<标题>內部Internal  –  e.g. M’s Model: Men, Money, Materials, Minutes, Machinery.

<标题>外部External – Micro-environment, e.g. Porter’s 5 Forces Model

宏觀環境 Macro-environment, e.g. PESTEL Model, PEST Model

在同一行業中,影響競爭性環境的五力包括:潛在進入者,消費者討價還價能力,供應商的討價還價能力,替代品以及行業內的競爭者。

<标题>潛在進入者是威脅(Threats of potential new entrants)

一個高回報的行業將吸引一些潛在進入者進入該行業,潛在進入者的加入會導致更為激烈的

市場競爭,這可能會影響定價的結構。潛在進入者的數量和質量取決于已經建立的進入障礙,當 前市場上一些企業的反應。為入侵的潛在進入者設置障礙的方式包括:高資本需求,規模經濟,產品多元化,有限的分銷渠道,政府的監管以及供應商和消費者的忠誠度的建立。

消費者討價還價能力的威脅(Bargaining power of buyers)

消費者的討價還價能力直接影響著整個市場,比如他們一般都期望低廉的價格或者特殊的服

務。他們的討價還價能力直接迫使價格的縮減或者質量的提升,這也使得公司的營業利潤降低。

供應商的討價還價能力的威脅(Bargaining power of suppliers)

與消費者的討價還價能力的威脅類似,供應商的討價還價能力也直接影響著市場,供應商希

望通過抬高價格或者降低產品的質量而進一步地降低成本來實現。

<标题>替代品的威脅(Threats of substitutes)

替代品是一種產品或者一項服務,盡管替代品與目標產品相比存在著不同形式或者不同的技

術層級方面的不同,但是它能夠同樣滿足消費者的大部分需求。

行業內的競爭者的威脅(Threats of competitive rivalry within the industry)

<标题>行業內的競爭影響著整個行業的利潤率,一些競爭者給公司施加壓力使得公司被迫降價,提

<标题>高產品質量以及不斷推陳出新來保住原有的消費群,在競爭性異常激烈的行業,公司為了贏得客戶不得不降低自身的利潤。

總之,波特的五力模型是一個非常重要的分析競爭因素的模型。

此外,對于外部環境分析,常用的是PESTEL分析模型。PESTEL分析模型又稱大環境分析,是分析宏觀環境的有效工具,不僅能夠分析外部環境,而且能夠識別一切對組織有沖擊作用的力量。它是調查組織外部影響因素的方法,其每一個字母代表一個因素,可以分為6大因素:政治因素(Political)、經濟因素(Economic)、社會因素(Social)、技術要素(Technological)、環境因素(Environmental)和法律因素(Legal)。

(1)政治因素(Political):是指對組織經營活動具有實際與潛在影響的政治力量和有關的政策、法律及法規等因素。

<标题>(2)經濟因素(Economic):是指組織外部的經濟結構、產業布局、資源狀況、經濟發展水平以及未來的經濟走勢等。

(3)社會因素(Social):是指組織所在社會中成員的歷史發展、文化傳統、價值觀念、教育水平以及風俗習慣等因素。

<标题>(4)技術因素(Technological):技術要素不僅僅包括那些引起革命性變化的發明,還包括與企業生產有關的新技術、新工藝、新材料的出現和發展趨勢以及應用前景。

<标题>(5)環境因素(Environmental):一個組織的活動、產品或服務中能與環境發生相互作用的要素。

(6)法律因素(Legal):組織外部的法律、法規、司法狀況和公民法律意識所組成的綜合系統。

PESTEL是在PEST分析基礎上加上環境因素(Environmental)和法律因素(Legal)形成的。在分析一個企業集團所處的背景的時候,通常是通過這六個因素來進行分析企業集團所面臨的狀況。

步驟5(step5)對企業進行swot分析后,為企業如何利用自身優勢發展企業,并將劣勢轉化為優勢提出建議(Make suggestions on how the institution can use its strengths for further and better development and how the weaknesses can be turned into strengths).

步驟6(step6)分析評價企業目前實施的不同戰略,并識別風險因素(analyse and evaluate different strategies that the institution has used, identify risk factors), 主要有下列三個方面:

公司層面(corporate level)

經營層面(business level )

功能層面(functional level)

步驟7(step7)為未來的發展給出恰當的解決辦法和建議(Make justified solutions and recommendations for future improvements)

另外在進行論文案例分析的過程中,同學們要注重理論聯系實際(Linking theory to practice)。具體如下圖:

以上便是我對如何成功完成一篇案例分析論文的簡單說明,希望能夠幫助你成功應對案例分析型論文的難點!

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review article是什么?應該怎么寫?

review article怎么寫

review article,也就是評論文章,是對發生的某一個特定的事務進行評論的常用文體,我們常見的有評論員文章、重要評論或者短評等,當然還有文學評論、藝術評論等等,這里我們重點學習的是文學評論。對review article有這么一段解釋:

An article review is both a summary and an evaluation of another writer’s article. Teachers often assign article reviews to introduce students to the work of experts in the field. Experts also are often asked to review the work of other professionals. Understanding the main points and arguments of the article is essential for an accurate summation. Logical evaluation of the article’s main theme, supporting arguments, and implications for further research is an important element of a review. 文學評論是同學們常常遇到的一種寫作,旨在學生的批判性觀點,為大論文寫作的literature Review打基礎。那么寫好一篇review article要注意哪些方面呢?

評論文章時,評論的內容根據材料的內容自己決定,可能但不一定包括:論證在概念界定上是否清楚;論證方法是否正確;論據是否成立;論據是否足以支持結論;有無支持結論的更為有力的論據;推理有無錯誤或漏洞;論證的成立是否需要另外的條件;有無另外的解釋反對或削弱該論證,作何種修改可以使論證更為有力等。論文是議論文的一種文體,但評論文很容易被狹隘的寫作成駁論文。因此,評論文章需要有以下幾方面的特點:一是要有正確而鮮明的觀點(論點)。我們對某個特定事件發表議論,總要有個基本看法:是好還是壞?是基本上好的還有缺點,還是基本上不好但尚有某些可取之處?這個基本看法就是文章的中心論點,而這個論點必須是正確的、鮮明的。二是要有準確、充分而有說服力的論據。論據主要應從特定的材料、情節和來龍去脈中去找,從而引用足以說明自己論點的材料來作為論據。這些論據一定要準確可靠,不能想當然,更不可曲解,甚或斷章取義,攻其一點不及其余。三是要運用科學的符合邏輯推理的論證方法。是用歸納法,還是用演繹法,或者是類比法,應深思熟慮。而且,是寫成一篇立論的評論,還是一篇駁論的評論,也需要根據寫作目的和讀者需要出發來確定。四是要具有批評的當代意識,能按照社會規律和特性結合事件實際進行寫作。必須運用學過的理論知識、常識等,針對具體事件進行具體分析。否則,在文章中盡講外行話,或者提出不切實際的要求,這樣的評論肯定難以服人。

<标题>評論文特征就是對于具體材料或現象的評論,所以我們在思考時一定要圍繞材料本身來展開,切不可拋開所閱讀材料,另起爐灶,一般情況下,我們應從下面幾個角度來展開思考:(1)表態度,要明確你對這一事件的態度和看法,贊同或者不贊同;(2)說現象,由特殊到一般,聯想同類現象或事件,分析這一特殊事件的典型性與代表性;(3)探本質、論特征,透過現象看本質,探究其本質屬性;或分析其特征;?(4)看問題,思考這一問題或現背后存在或反映出的問題;(5)析原因,分析持此態度的原因,或產生或出現這一現象的原因等;(6)論影響、后果、危害,談這一事件可能產生的影響或導致后果,以及可能產生的危害;(7)談價值、意義,從正面或反面思考價值意義;(8)想辦法、提措施,針對問題,指出應該怎么辦。

此外評論文章需要以下幾個基本功要扎實:一是評論文章需要一定知識積累,也就是個人的文化素養要高。這點很重要,評論文章不是胡思亂想出來的,每天去關注你所喜歡的領域是必不可少的,有了大量發的文學積累你才有話題的評論,才能使你對某件事有自己的想法和看法。二是基本的結構是“總—分—總”,但是合理的構設文章還是需要一定的功底。這是通過的文字表達方式,寫一篇評論文章常用的思路和寫作文一樣,都是由(總—分—總)這樣的套路來寫作的。大體路子是,開篇的(總):引用或描述某一件 事。(分):對這件事進行拆分,用各種觀點,尤其是自己的觀點來進行描述、佐證。(總):也就是文章最后的總結,發表些個人總結等等。具體來講,一般常用的是五段式的評論結構。一般第一段是概述你評論的對象,以概敘的方式讓讀者了解事件的前因后果,接著發表你的基本觀點,作為中心論點。第二段至第四段結構基本一致,分論點、論據、分析論證,三部分,一步不能少。其基本模式為:分論點+論據+分析+總結。第五段:總結陳述。在這一部分我們要解決這么幾個問題,照應開頭,辯證看問題,提出解決問題的方法或方向。總括起來,也就是提出問題(中心論點)、分析問題(二至四段)、解決問題。或者叫“總分總結構”。這只是一個基本模式,具體有無窮的變化。三是要有自己的觀點,也可以理解為自己的見解獨特、深刻,不能人云亦云,堅持自己的原則立場。這一點很重要,可以說,有自己的見解和觀點是整篇評論文的靈魂,失去了這些也就沒有思想性,沒有什么品位的文章不值得被人去品讀。四是寫好評論文章要能夠透過現象看本質,也就是看問題是否透徹,角度是否獨到。看問題要看到實質,在此基礎上,要做到人無我有,人有我新,也就是特立獨行地提出自己的觀點。這不僅是文章視角的問題、評論角度的問題、新穎的問題,而且是透過現象看本質的問題,也就是要有自己獨特的看法與對現象深刻分析。看問題的實質其實已經涉及寫作問題了,那就是寫評論文章,必須觀點先行,觀點先行者,中心論點先確立也。自己觀點就是你所看到的問題的實質,就是你要弘揚的,你要批判的,或者是你要怒罵的。確立中心論點還有一個我們要注意的問題,根據自己的駕馭能力選擇比較小的角度確立中心觀點,角度越小,我們就越能駕馭,越容易寫好。角度越大我們就越不能駕馭,就越有可能把文章寫砸的可能。也就是什么都想要說,反而什么都說不清。五是評論文不僅僅是議論,一般給人以啟發思想,或者給出解決問題之道。也就是說評論文不是我們個人對所閱讀文章好壞的一個評價,而是從具體的文章內容談起,讓讀者明白你要分析論證的對象,提出所閱讀文章的作者對世間萬象的看法,然后,分層論證,以讓讀者信服于你,在這樣的基礎上辯證分析問題,并提出作者解決問題的建議或方向,好讓讀者易于理解。夸夸其談,是不起作用,對理解所閱讀論文的思想內容沒有任何意義。

<标题>那么,評論文章該如何寫作呢?一般來講,評論文的寫作一般有四種常用方法。分別是:一是駁論法,事件或現象總是會有正反兩面的意見,我們可以選擇相反的觀點做為靶子,用駁論的方法來增加論述的力量。但這種手法往往不用于全篇,而只是用于文章中的某個局部,與其它的論述方法綜合運用。二是綜合分析法,從兩個或三個角度進行分析,按照認知邏輯安排全文結構與層次,開成層層深入的思維與結構形式,析原因(或本質)——論危害——想辦法,這是最常見的一種形式。三是平面分析法,文章的主體從一個角度進行分析,或析實質,或談特征,或析原因,或談問題,或論危害,或談價值(意義)等,總之,要分析出三條,使文章形成并列式結構,這樣的結構方式,在評論性文章中,仍然是最受老師青睞的。四是正反分析法,正面,從意義、價值角度思考,反面,從問題危害角度探討,但不平均用力,以其中一個方面為主,以另一方面為輔,形成對比。這樣的方式,對比鮮明,結構清晰。

當然,我們在寫評論文章時,需要注意幾個方面。一是要詳盡了解所閱讀文章和內容和核心思想,在沒有詳盡了解之前,請不要撰寫評論類文章,因為你的評論一定會偏離軌道。二是不夾帶個人情感,要做到這點很難,真的很難。我們在寫文章時,要時時記得這點,盡量以客觀的眼光去看待文獻中涉及的問題。如果你認為,寫不好,太容易夾帶個人情感,那么就請盡早放棄,在這種情況下,就算寫完,也不會是一篇有意義的文章。三是是觀點明朗,寫評論類文章,要有自己的觀點,同一篇文章中的觀點絕對不能自相矛盾。樹立觀點時,思路要清晰,樹立的觀點必須是自己能闡述得清的,以免到時候東扯西扯,扯了半天也沒有將觀點說清楚。

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寫論文時,有什么尋找論文題目的方法?

論文題目

有人說:找對了題目,等于論文完成了一半。這么說可能有些極端,但也不無道理,因為選題確實在很大程度上決定著論文的價值,也關系到論文創作的整個過程是否順利。我的理解,所謂“找對了論文題目”有這樣基層意思在里面:一是指課題有研究的必要性,二是課題研究的實用性,三是指課題有研究的可行性。我記得有位同學選擇了一個模型的機理研究,結果鉆進了死胡同,一直沒有出來預期的結果,導致論文答辯差一點沒有通過。在這里,我們一起探討如何找一個合適的論文題目。

論文找題要關注哪些因素呢?

1.查閱文獻看別人怎么做。我們在找題之前都會查閱一部分參考資料,看看別人的內容和研究方向都有哪些可以借鑒的。看到比較新穎的選題還可以根據自身的知識和工作情況進行延伸來得到想要的題目。這個過程需要注意兩個問題:第一注意市場變化,由于市場變化很多,我們在查閱資料是盡量選擇近兩年的文獻,如果很久以前的,可能那個課題已經過時了;第二注意的是一定要查看本校畢業生學位論文,因為同一個學校,課程基本類似,知識水平相差不會太遠,了解了他人寫的什么,就會對自己論文的長度、深度有一個概念,方便后續工作的進行。

<标题>2.資料是否充足。資料條件也是選擇合適論文題目必須要考慮,也是值得重視的條件。資料是進行科學研究的憑借,是學術見解產生的基礎。撰寫論文,從事研究,不能沒有資料,而資料又不是隨手可取的。而且,因為論文主題和方向的不同,資料條件并不是對于每個人都相同的。科學研究資料的種類很多,而對于大學生來說,最常用的資料就是文獻資料。每個人都處于特定的生活環境之中,可以經常利用的圖書情報機構有限,而任何一個圖書情報機構都不能無所不包,為此,選題時就要考慮能否拿到自己所需要的文獻資料,經過努力之后,得到的資料是否齊全、夠用。

<标题>3.在選擇較具爭議性的研究題目之前需慎重考慮。學術界是相當敏感的,在每個研究領域中,有一些主題或立場是可能會引起審閱者的惱怒。這不意味著您應該選擇迎合他人需求的題目。然而,如果您選擇了一個具有爭議性的研究主題,必須仔細考慮這個題目是否會限制自己的就業發展、教授終身聘任的資格或論文的發表機會。

4.調查您的研究題目研究是否未被研究過。您選擇的題目還未被研究過很可能是因為沒有可供利用的資源及無法接觸潛在的受訪者。雖然這些問題并不能阻止學者欲徹底解開學術之謎的決心,事實上,如果知名學者已嘗試過某項研究主題并且以失敗告終,建議在您撰寫自己的學術著作前,先再等待個幾年。

5.要充分考量自身的能力問題。這里所說的能力問題主要是從研究題目的大小是否適中的角度著眼的。對不同級別的畢業論文的篇幅,通常有著不同的規定。而從總體上看,畢業論文的篇幅相對較長,為此,如果研究的問題太小,則難有展開的余地,寫出的論文常會給人一種繁冗、龐雜,“小題大作”之感。相反,如果題目過大,而作者的研究能力及研究經驗不夠,則無法把問題研究得非常深入、透徹,寫出的論文常會流于膚淺、空泛,給人一種“大題小作”之感。

6.選擇您喜愛的研究題目。這是最重要的選擇標準。未來您將花費很多時間于論文寫作上,如果您能愉快地度過這段時間,您的論文品質才會變得更好。此外,如果您對自己的研究充滿熱情,您的論文、寫作及論證才會有較佳的品質。您應該選擇一個自己非常感興趣并具有社會意義的題目,千萬不要讓別人強迫您選擇某一特定題目。  

7.時間條件和導師指導條件也是選題時需要考慮的因素。論文的寫作是一個過程,是否具備充足的時間條件,直接關系到論文能否完成及完成的質量。畢業論文通常要求在有限的時間內完成,這就更要求作者在選題時充分考慮時間條件,根據時間條件,衡量課題的大小是否適中及難易程度是否恰當。為使論文寫作的時間盡可能充裕一些,選題應當盡可能早一些。但究竟在什么時候選擇并確定論文的題目為妥,要視作者的專業課學習情況而定。

<标题>那么,通過上述節因素的考慮,尋找題目應該說具有了基本的范圍,那就進入中期的準備階段。進入這個階段已經有了方向的話其實已經很好辦,通過這個關鍵詞去查閱書籍或者論文都可獲得很多靈感。其中查閱書籍可能花的時間相對而言比較多,推薦的是查閱論文,記得中文和英文的關鍵詞都查一遍,可以獲得更加多樣的結果。尤其是一些論文在文章中會指出本文有哪些局限性,還可以從哪些方面論證等等,這些往往是非常詳細的研究點,如果有條件可以直接作為論文題目。?這個階段要做到的是:在整個學科和方向的大框架內,選好自己的論文的著手點,要求我們的眼光要聚焦精準的某一個領域之內。??如果你這個時候還沒有方向,那在這個階段,可以去看一些學術類節目或者雜志之類的,找找靈感直接切題。或者是跟你的導師或者師兄師姐聊聊學科的前沿發展或者近期的學術動態,甚至與向已經畢業的師兄師姐取經看看他們當時寫作的時候有沒有一些考慮過但沒有最終落實的選題可以作為自己的著手點。

<标题>最后,就要進入準備開題階段,那就是選找論文題目的最后一步了。這一步基本要把論文題目確定下來,要把握幾個方面:一是題目要準確反映論文的內容,符合其深度和廣度,論文內容包括引言、資料與方法、結果及討論等部分。而論文題目僅一句話,不可能反映如此多的內容,一般僅反映主要研究對象、方法、目的或結果。二是客觀、含蓄地描述研究結果,一篇論文中結果是主要的,由結果升華到結論更是可貴的。在題目中,一般不具體提結果和結論,而只作客觀地、含蓄地描述。三是簡明醒目,引人入勝:確定論文題目,還應該力求簡明、醒目,引人入勝。所謂簡明,就是文字簡煉、易懂。一般中文題目,以不超過20個漢字為宜;而英文題目的詞數尚無統一規定,部分雜志規定以14~15個詞或84個印刷符號,或一般不超過兩行為妥。一般不設副標題,但在不可能簡短的情況下,為了補充主標題內容或強調某一重點,可考慮加副標題。四是正確用詞:論文題目由精心選擇的詞匯組成,一般僅為一個短語、詞組或一個完整的句子。確定題目時應注意用詞恰當,使用正確的專業術語,并盡可能流暢易懂,避免使用空泛和華麗的詞藻,避免錯別字、俚語和已淘汰的術語。

<标题>我的切身體會是,寫畢業論文時如果選題是熱門的、實用的,論文就成功了一半。反之,如果選了過時的、老舊的、實踐意義不強的,就很難通過。所以,找到一個好的課題是非常不容易把握的,希望大家在實際操作過程中還是要多學習多請教前輩,以免走了彎路做了許多無用功,能夠確保畢業設計順利。 T

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論文筆記常用方法

論文筆記

論文寫作是一個長期的過程,在此過程中我們需要大量閱讀文獻,通過學習的積累不斷拓展課題研究的廣度和深度。但大家都面臨一個比較棘手的問題,大量的文獻和研究心得如何有效的管理,論文筆記就是常用的一種方法,通過論文筆記不僅能夠把繁雜的學習內容條理化,也有助于我們對知識的二次加工和消化吸收,提升論文撰寫的效率,避免走彎路。但是還有很多人不明白如何做筆記,最常見就是很多人會直接把人家書本上的信息全部抄錄下來,不經過任何的修改就使用在自己的文章里面,這不是做筆記,這是“剽竊”,“抄襲”,就是抄襲別人的東西,當作是自己寫出來的。這種行為,要受到譴責和處罰。很多同學聽到這樣的觀點一定會感到非常驚訝,因為在國外從來沒有人告訴過他們這樣的事情。的確,我們在國內學校里頭教導的做筆記方法就是把老師所說的或者黑板板書的東西全部都抄下來,并且把這個叫做–做筆記。所以,我們都以為做筆記就是直接把東西抄下來,這是我們的習慣。但是現在,你要寫essay,report等論文,那么就一定不能用這種方式來做筆記。因此,這篇文章綜合介紹論文筆記的主要形式以及操作要點給留學生們予以講解,幫助大家了解操作如何做筆記。

(一)論文筆記的主要形式

<标题>論文筆記,是指我們在閱讀文獻或文章過程中,遇到值得記錄的東西和自己的心得、體會,隨時隨地把它寫下來的一種文體。常用的形式有:

<标题>提綱式。提綱是用綱要的形式把一本書或一篇文章的論點、論據提綱摯領地敘述出來。提綱可按原文的章節、段落層次,把主要的內容扼要地寫出來。提綱讀書筆記可以采用原文的語句和自己的語言相結合的方式來寫。

<标题>摘錄式。摘要式讀書筆記,是在讀書時把與自己學習、工作、研究的問題有關的語句、段落等按原文準確無誤地抄錄下來。摘錄原文后要注明出處,包括題目、作者、出版單位、出版日期,頁碼等,便于引用和核實。摘錄要有選擇,以是否有用作為摘錄的標準。

仿寫式。為了能做到學以致用,可模仿所摘錄的精彩句子,段落進行仿寫,達到學會運用。

<标题>評論式。評注式讀書筆記不單是摘錄,而且要把自己對讀物內容的主要觀點、材料的看法寫出來,其中自然也包括表達出筆記作者的感情。評注式筆記有時對摘錄的要點做概括的說明。

<标题>心得式。為了記下自己感受最深的內容,記下讀了什么書,書中哪些內容自己教育最深,聯系實際寫出自己的感受。

<标题>存疑式。主要是記錄讀書中遇到的疑難問題,邊讀邊記,以后再分別進行詢問請教,達到弄懂的目的。

(二)論文筆記要求

<标题>結合個人學習感到,論文筆記的一般要求無非以下九個方面,這些要素搞明白了,論文筆記才能搞保證高質量。

<标题>1、Topic?主題是什么。這是核心,也是寫好論文筆記的綱,只有這個主題明確了,下面的工作才能做到綱舉目張,循序漸進。?

2、Theory?理論背景是什么。即我們的理論支撐夠不夠,是不是有充分的理論準備基礎。?

<标题>3、Issue?要研究的問題是什么。這就回歸到研究課題的出發點,說直白一些就是我們課題研究的實際意義在哪里,有多少具體實用價值。?

<标题>4、Hypothesis?研究假設是什么,推導的邏輯是什么。既合理性是否成立,不能閉門造車、憑空臆想,要有合理的論證。

5、Study?求證的方法是什么。就是要說明白課題研究的科學性,這一塊就是要求我們論文寫作具有較高的科學嚴謹性。?

6、Result?主要的結果是什么。是否能夠達到預期目的,結果是否令人滿意。

<标题>7、Explanation?結果的意料/意外是什么。基于文獻如何解釋,有什么意義和啟示,存在的問題。?

<标题>8、Implication?對該領域的研究有什么啟發,對你的研究有什么借鑒,有實用/收獲嗎。?

9、如果讓你來做這樣一個研究,你會這么做嗎?你還能怎么做??

<标题>一篇文獻閱讀筆記都要對以上問題給予回答,這也是寫好論文筆記的基本要求和出發點,要針對上述問題的思考和回答,落實到論文筆記中去。

(三)讀書筆記的寫法

<标题>我們了解的文獻閱讀筆記的具體細節,還要清楚文獻筆記的寫法。讀書筆記的寫法是:

<标题>(1)什么雜志,第幾期,什么地方有關于什么問題的什么論述,它對于我即將做的博論文有什么參考作用,或者我對于這個問題有什么自己的見解,可能會有什么貢獻等等。

(2)讀書筆記要進行分類,如分為數學模型方面的;實證研究方面的;中文文獻方面的;外文文獻方面的;數據方面的;純理論方面的;政策分析方面的;學術爭論方面的;案例材料方面的等等。

<标题>(3)重點分析或者精讀幾篇代表性的文獻;

(4)重要的是要寫心得體會;

(5)重要的數據要及時記下來;

(6)前面的過程可能有反復,自己的見解也會有變化的。

以上只是簡單的對網絡上關于讀書筆記寫法的一個匯總。有點亂,但是還比較全。同學們可以在寫出一篇像樣的讀書筆記后,再結合自己的寫作過程好好修改整理下。

(四)讀書筆記包含內容

做好讀書筆記是獲取知識的一種基本工具, 一篇好的讀書筆記要讓自己幾乎不用閱讀原文就可以掌握大致內容。所以讀書筆記的結構、內容不重要,重要的是能提供一個直觀的理解。以本人閱讀經濟管理類外文的經驗,做這類讀書筆記一般包括以下幾個方面:

一、作者簡介

要簡要說明作者的學術和工作背景,主要成就、主要書籍、論文和研究方向。

二、當前學習的動機(motivation)

讀書筆記開頭就應該明確地交代本文的寫作背景或者寫作目的,即本文是為了解決什么理論問題或解釋現實問題的。通常的做法,就是簡要交代一下文章所追敘的理論線索。這部分的內容單單依靠原文的綜述怕是不夠,需要作者自己整理。

<标题>三、主要觀點(main arguments)

<标题>最好用簡短的幾句話概括一下原文的主要觀點,這些觀點一般體現為核心命題,通常在introduction或concluding remark中就有。

四、主要模型或分析框架(framework)

<标题>可以包括兩部分:對模型基本假設的介紹,以及基本模型以及相應命題。因為每一個觀點的得出,都離不開具體的環境,所以需要了解最重要的幾個假設。為了加深理解,了解模型的基本框架也是很重要的。

<标题>五、評論(argument)

從學術理論的發展和管理實踐應用兩個方面對論文的價值進行評價,也可以指出論文的應用之處。

六、思考或擴展或者表達與作者觀點不一致的地方(further research)

<标题>這是讀書筆記的實質性部分,可以總結一下原文可能的擴展方向,或者展望一下未來可能的研究課題。如果對文章理解較深刻,最好自己能對文章提出一些批評,或者指出其瑕疵。實際上,這才是寫讀書筆記最重要的目的或收獲。

七、參考文獻

可以列出與主題有關的主要參考文獻,以便今后查詢,也方便別人“按圖索驥”。那么如何選擇和閱讀文獻?

? 閱讀文獻,要力求對一個方面或一個主題,或者一個概念的歷史發展都要搞清楚,清楚來龍去脈。文獻有新有舊,有些學科或專題文獻的半衰期很長,經典文獻的閱讀是很重要的,只下載幾篇新文獻是很難理解全貌的。

<标题>? 要有意識閱讀大家的文獻,閱讀某個領域或專題中程碑式的文獻或文獻綜述。這些文獻對于初學者了解一個學科或領域的發展很有幫助,對于某個階段的重要文獻提供了一個查找的捷徑。從中可以很快了解一些相關理論和學說、重要結果的進展。

? 要善于分析自己研究領域中一些國內外代表性實驗室的論文,通過分析一個實驗室的論文目錄,可以了解這個實驗室的發展過程和研究興趣的發展、拓展。

<标题>? 要善于分析本領域一些代表性學者的論文,通過分析這些引領學科或領域發展的科學家的論文目錄,同樣可以看到他(她)個人研究興趣和研究生涯的發展,以及他(她)所領導的研究團隊的發展過程。

? 在廣泛閱讀的基礎上,要善于總結和整合,類似Minireview 的方式。如果能將類似相近的一些重要文獻(如10-20篇),進行整合和歸納,理出最新的幾個專題的進展,無疑會加深對所閱讀的文獻的理解。那么筆記記什么?記錄新進展。哪些是新進展?需要廣泛閱讀才能知曉。

? 閱讀任何文獻或專著,一定要記錄清楚文獻題目、出處、作者、發表年代、期卷、頁碼等等信息,這些信息是以后引文時必須的,不要嫌麻煩,如作者欄目是需要將所有作者都要記錄全的。

<标题>有些重要文獻需要精讀,讀幾遍是不行的,要很熟悉。這類文獻在不同時期讀有不同時期的理解,如開題階段,可能比較注重某個方向或領域的理論和觀點、實驗方法和技術手段;在實驗階段,可能比較注意進行結果之間的比較,根據文獻結果和變化規律,對自己的結果進行一些趨勢預測;在論文寫作階段,可能會比較關注結果分析、理論學說的驗證等等。與之相應,多數文獻是需要泛讀的,可能只需要讀讀題目,可能只看看摘要,也可能只瀏覽一下圖表等等。

要重視論文的題目和摘要,這是很重要和簡潔、精煉的信息。一篇論文的精華部分都在這里了。同樣文章中的一些重要信息也是需要特別關注的,如生態生理學特別關注物種對環境的適應,那么環境條件就是很重要的信息了,如物種的分類地位、生物學習性、地理分布,以及分布區的海拔、氣候和植被等等。

<标题>閱讀文獻和專著是需要積累的,要堅持不懈,多研究和教學工作恐怕一生都要堅持閱讀新文獻和著作。讀文獻有個量變到質變的過程,閱讀量大了,積累多了,需要總結的方面就多了。這樣日久天長,通過知識的整合,知識框架會逐漸完善,自己肚子里的“貨”就會感覺逐漸充實起來了,用和取的時候就會很自如。

(五)論文筆記的注意事項

論文筆記的記錄還要注意以下四個方面,也是提升論文筆記質量的途徑。

一是勤思考。不單單是了解別人做了什么,還要考慮別人沒做什么,或者他的實驗能不能和他的結論吻合,數據可不可靠等等。用圖表的方式將作者的整個邏輯畫出來,逐一推敲,抱著一種挑的心態想。帶著挑剔的眼神去讀文獻,不要盲目崇拜,有些東東自己作作,發現并不是那么回事,自己要動手,自己更要動腦。看文獻中懂得抓重點,找思路。

二是多與人交流,是提升自己的極好方式。和導師談談你的想法,交流一下各自所了解的所在領域某一方向的研究進展;與相關方向的牛人談談,對自己的啟發要比看文獻大的多。不僅與本領域的牛人交談,還抓住機會與其他領域的牛人交談,牛人的一句話,有時你讀半年書都讀不來的。

<标题>三是觀點相反的論文可以參照來讀,品味一下雙方的觀點。還有就是與原著同時發表的其他專家的述評、原著發表后的讀者質疑,都應當和原著一起讀。比較一下,就可以看到自己的差距了。?

<标题>四是做技術的要善于比較和發現,一些技術含量高文獻,不可能把要點都報道出來,中文如此,英文也是如此。

<标题>以上便是君道論文小編對記錄論文筆記一些常用方法的說明,希望能夠在同學們閱讀論文的時候幫到你們!

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留學生有哪些論文寫作神器?

論文寫作神器

別看留學生們在朋友圈秀留學生活很瀟灑,前幾天還在愛琴海浪漫,后天就在法國瀟灑。事實上,身為留學黨,也會各種苦逼的在圖書館寫數不完的Essay和paper以及最后的dissertation。對留學生來說,寫論文是一個比較耗時的長期工程,特別是畢業論文設計,往往跨度一個學年甚至更長,在這個過程中如果沒有所謂“神器”相助,這樣的工作量還是十分大的。如果能夠合理利用一些輔助的工具或者平臺,勢必能夠達到事半功倍的效果,導師就在不也不用擔心我的論文了。今天,我們就一起看看有哪些是我們寫論文必備的神器。

<标题>首先介紹四個下載參考文獻的學術網站,因為在論文的寫作過程中,總是不可避免的會使用文獻來support論文的論點。

(1)Google 學術搜索,很有名,但直接打不開,需要通過代理服務器。但也有不少人說這個不好,尤其是與百度比較。其實這也只是一說,同學們可以自己試一試。Google學術搜索濾掉了普通搜索結果中大量的垃圾信息,排列出文章的不同版本以及被其它文章的引用次數。略顯不足的是,它搜索出來的結果沒有按照權威度(譬如影響因子、引用次數)依次排列,在中國搜索出來的,前幾頁可能大部分為中文的一些期刊的文章。 

(2) ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com/):Elsevier是荷蘭一家全球著名的學術期刊出版商,每年出版大量的學術圖書和期刊,大部分期刊被SCI,SSCI,EI收錄。近幾年該公司將其出版的2500多種期刊和11000種圖書全部數字化,即ScienceDirect全文數據庫,并通過網絡提供服務。該數據庫涉及眾多科學:計算機科學,工程技術,能源科學,環境科學,材料科學,數學,物理,化學,天文學,醫學,生命科學,商業,及經濟管理,社會科學等。

(3) SCI-Hub,網址是http://sci-hub.hk/。這個網址的主要作用就是可以讓你免費下載英文文獻。這是一個俄羅斯人開發的可以下載任意文獻雜志的工具,只要輸入你想要下載的文獻題目、DOI等信息就可以獲取到該文獻的真實地址并在線瀏覽,當然更重要的是可以下載。除了這個網站之外,還有一個中國版本的sci-hub,網址是www.sci-hub.cn。

(4) 國外期刊評價分析網,對于研究人員來說,了解該領域內有哪些比較好的英文雜志,寫論文時也是重要的參考。如果你去問老師,一是老師也不一定知道得那么全,二是可能覺得,這種事情應該本來就知道或者自己想辦法知道。評價一個期刊的指標有很多,其中 SJR是一個既考慮期刊被引數量,又考慮期刊被引質量的指標,是一種新型的靠譜的評估期刊質量的方法。SCImago Journal & Country Rank就是利用這個指標對雜志進行排名的。這個網站完全免費,界面簡單,一看就知道如何使用。

<标题>下載完文獻,同學們還需要有效的整理這些文獻。因為參考文獻是一個比較難以管理的大數據工程,特別是在前期準備階段,也需要我們進行大量的文獻閱讀和綜述。所以,在這里,君道論文小編就給大家介紹一個文獻管理的有效工具——NoteExpress軟件。NoteExpress具備文獻信息檢索與下載功能,可以用來管理參考文獻的題錄,以附件方式管理參考文獻全文或者任何格式的文件,文檔。數據挖掘的功能可以幫助用戶快速了解某研究方向的最新進展,各方觀點等。除了管理以上顯性的知識外,類似日記,科研心得,論文草稿等瞬間產生的隱性知識也可以通過NoteExpress的筆記功能記錄,并且可以與參考文獻的題錄聯系起來。在編輯器(比如MS Word)中NoteExpress可以按照各種期刊雜志的要求自動完成參考文獻引用的格式化——完美的格式,精準的引用將大大增加論文被采用的幾率。與筆記以及附件功能的結合,全文檢索,數據挖掘等,使該軟件可以作為強大的個人知識管理系統。具體的操作就不給大家介紹了,可以到其官方網站進行學習。除此之外,還有RefWorks。RefWorks是一個聯機個人文獻書目管理軟件、文獻管理軟件、題錄管理軟件,用于幫助用戶建立和管理個人文獻書目資料,并可以實現在撰寫文稿的同時,即時插入參考文獻,同時生成規范的、符合出版要求的文后參考文獻。

同學們會發現,下載的文獻,大部分為PDF文檔,無法復制粘貼,這樣就增加了同學們的工作量。這就可能需要不同格式的文件進行轉化切換,這里君道論文小編給大家介紹一個文檔轉換的軟件-Convertio軟件。Convertio.co 是一個完全免費的在線文件格式互相轉換工具(網站),與 CloudConvert 云轉換很相似,Convertio 也支持大量常見的文件格式類型,包括辦公文檔、圖片、電子書、音頻、壓縮文件等類型 (完整格式支持列表)。可以快速實現 PDF 轉換 Word、PNG 轉換 JPG、WAV 轉換 MP3 等操作。Convertio 不僅免費,而且也不強制注冊,用戶可以通過瀏覽器直接上傳文件進行格式轉換,也可以通過輸入網址添加,或者直接從 Google Drive、Dropbox 等云存儲(網盤)選擇要轉換的文件。Convertio.co 支持批量轉換多個文件,轉換完成后可以直接下載,也可以將文件保存到網盤,或者發送到指定的 Email 郵箱。

下面給大家介紹一個格式排版的好工具,這個也是理工科最神器的論文輔助工具。這個神器能夠最方便美觀的排版系統,能輕松搞定公式和學術論文,輕松設置參考文獻、頁眉頁腳、圖標編號、計算數理公式,輕松設置學術論文,那就是堪稱完美排版的方法工具——LaTeX。LaTeX是一種基于ΤΕΧ的排版系統,由美國計算機學家萊斯利·蘭伯特(Leslie Lamport)在20世紀80年代初期開發,利用這種格式,即使使用者沒有排版和程序設計的知識也可以充分發揮由TeX所提供的強大功能,能在幾天,甚至幾小時內生成很多具有書籍質量的印刷品。對于生成復雜表格和數學公式,這一點表現得尤為突出。因此它非常適用于生成高印刷質量的科技和數學類文檔。這個系統同樣適用于生成從簡單的信件到完整書籍的所有其他種類的文檔。具體操作也不在此贅述,不過這個軟件入手比較難一些,但是一旦掌握了,寫論文就有如神助,你的論文版面是十分的漂亮。

<标题>其次就是比較容易使用的圖片掃描的app:(1)文字掃描王,可以把紙質版或者不能編輯的pdf文件轉為可編輯狀態,把需要的文字拍下來,他就會自動識別文字,這樣就成了可以編輯的電子版啦。不過目前只能識別中英文兩種,識別出的英文還可以翻譯,但是我覺得不靠譜,還是復制過來自己翻譯吧。(2)描全能王,最好用的就是掃描功能。使用時,對需要的文件拍照,它會自動調整邊框、亮度等,然后保存為圖片或pdf,用了之后你會發現,這和你去打印店掃描出來的幾乎沒差別,相當于隨身攜帶掃描儀了,十分方面快捷。(3)掃描王OCR,和第二個類似,但是有限制一小時可以免費用幾次,然后就要充會員,一個月5塊錢,因此,我還是建議大家使用前面兩個。

最后,給大家推薦三個輔助的論文寫作工具。(1)Refme,這絕對是一款非常適合懶人用的論文輔助神器,只需要在手機或電腦上注冊后,通過手機掃書籍或期刊的barcodes,或是直接復制粘帖website URL,就可以生成references,非常的實用。此外,生成的references主要有 Harvard, Chicago, Vancouver, MHRA, MLA, Oxford等7000余種,絕對可以滿足大家的各種需求。(2)Ginger,這是一款超級大牛的論文修改神器,簡單方便。 Ginger 可根據每句話的上下文在 MS-Word、Outlook、PowerPoint、IE 和 Firefox 中糾正拼寫和語法錯誤。它不僅提供語法檢查程序和拼寫檢查程序,還提供文本朗讀工具,可提高學習者的發音和語調。(3)Paperrater,這是一款蠻強大的論文檢測系統,不僅操作簡單,而且檢測之后還會自動生成檢測報告,但相比CNKI等論文檢測軟件,Paperratter 的查重率很高,因為它會把論文的目錄,文獻等包含進去,所以一般查重率一般較高,所以在一定程度上,這會導致之后的修改工作量較大。

<标题>找到一個好的寫作論文輔助工具或者好的平臺,寫作論文不僅能夠輕松省力,還能夠確保論文的美觀、高質量,上述所列的輔助工具僅僅是個例,還有不少沒有被發掘出來的,希望大家在學習中加強探索交流,去發現適合自己的輔助工具,就像騎士要有一匹好馬,廚師要有一套好刀,寫作的人也需要花點心思研究自己的工具——以前是紙筆,現在則是軟件。寫稿這件事,工具肯定不是最重要的。偉大的作家在衛生紙上也能寫出好作品,而再先進的工具也沒法讓一個草包突然變成文豪。但必須承認的是,好的寫稿工具確實能幫助你提高效率、避免意外、舒暢心情,說不定還會給你帶來意想不到的靈感。  

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埃克塞特大學論文代寫-organisational learning

organasational learning

It has been stated that a business derives value from knowledge, know-how, intellectual assets and competencies rather than ‘things’ and that these capabilities are vested within people (Hamel, 2005). Consequently, in order to create an enduring competitive advantage, a company must therefore focus on the retention and development of its organisational expertise (skills set, tacit and explicit knowledge, capabilities and core competences) and how to engage staff in the process (Porter, 2004; French, Rayner, Rees & Rumbles, 2008).

Two contrasting learning philosophies appear to exist within organisations – a basic, predominantly instructional approach focussed on remedial action to correct errors or omissions; and a more comprehensive lifelong learning recognising the fundamental importance of employees to business therefore adopting a more developmental approach (viewing people as assets) (Beardwell & Thompson, 2014).

Training is a planned and systematic way of improving an individual’s knowledge, skills and attitudes so that they can perform their current role more competently, whereas development is the process of preparing a person to take on more onerous responsibilities or equip them to face higher level, future challenges within the organisation (Malone, 2003: 76). Learning is the process that brings about a persistent change in behaviour through the acquisition of increased competence to deal successfully with the operating environment through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and required attitudes (French et al, 2008: 123).

<标题>Whilst learning is focussed on the acquisition of the required skills and competences to perform effectively, this has to be linked to performance i.e. combining this essential learning with the motivation to engage in a manner that applies it in a way that delivers improved or enhanced results (Bratton & Gold, 2007). This learning (and its application) can take place at various levels within a company – such as on an individual or team/group basis – but the focus of this paper will be on organisational learning aspects (French et al, 2008).

Key Definitions and Concepts

Organisational learning can be viewed as the process by which a company can build a collective or shared knowledge base and the development of mechanisms to retrieve and disseminate this knowledge (Hora & Hunter, 2014). This is built upon the premise that as an organisation grows and adapts, it is able to generate/create a store of institutional knowledge that delivers a collective business benefit exceeding that which could be expected to be provided by employees operating individually (Hagen, 2010). As a company develops over time, the collective learning that takes place generates organisational knowledge – the shared intelligence specific to that company accumulated through both formal systems and the shared experiences of people in the organisation (Cole & Kelly, 2011; Johnson, Whittington & Scholes, 2011).

Organisational learning therefore requires an entity capable of continual regeneration through the application of knowledge, experience and skills by creating a culture that encourages challenge and review (Johnson et al, 2011). The traditional, rigid, hierarchical structures that ensure the command and control of individuals are no longer conducive to competing in more dynamic environments or for generating organisational learning (Henry, 2011). Organisational learning consequently refers to the capacity of a company to learn how to do what it does, where what it learns is possessed not by individual members but by the collective – when the group acquires the know-how associated with its ability to carry out its collective activities then organisational learning has taken place (Cohen & Sproull, 1996).

Organisational learning provides a mechanism to address the essential nature of knowledge (Thompson & McHugh, 2009), in that there are fundamental differences in terms of explicit knowledge (which can be expressed formally and communicated through language) and tacit knowledge (which is difficult to formalise or communicate as it is embodied, personal and rooted in action/context) (Nonaka, 1994). A company requires the effective application of tacit knowledge developed from a more intimate appreciation of their operations and environment, in order to build a sustainable competitive advantage (Henry, 2011; Porter, 2004). This tacit knowledge can be perceived as corporate wisdom and despite the challenges associated with its transmission and dissemination, organisational learning approaches can be used to capture it effectively to create, innovate and maintain the competitive advantage required (Mullins & Christie, 2013).

<标题>In terms of individual employee capabilities, a company requires skill in the person (rooted within the individual and can be developed through education, training and experience), skill in the job (meeting role requirements) and skill in the setting (an understanding and appreciation of the shared/collective interests of the company and the organisational culture) (Johnson et al, 2011). Effective organisational learning approaches should therefore seek to maximise the collective return from the application and sharing of tacit knowledge, and the skills that can be acquired and developed through the working environment and culture (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006), as these possess real business utility as they cannot be easily replicated by competitors (Barney, 1986).

Organisational Learning Approaches

Senge (1990) argued that an effective organisational approach to learning required the application of five key disciplines:

  • Personal mastery – understanding individual aspirations and creating clear linkages to organisational goals;
  • Mental models – creating a culture of reflection and inquiry to develop a wider awareness of the organisations needs so that individual thinking begins to anticipate those needs;
  • Shared vision – creating a collective commitment to a common purpose with activities and targets clearly linked to that purpose;
  • Team learning – group development interactions (rather than individual skills programmes) to ensure that training reflects requirements generated by shared goals;
  • Systems thinking – taking a holistic view to understand and appreciate key interdependencies, using feedback to develop, refine (and ultimately simplify) often complex systems.

<标题>(Senge, 1990)

For such an integrated thinking approach to be effective, the leader(s) must be able to develop a shared vision of where the organisation wants to be, developing a creative tension by also clearly articulating the current position of the company (Henry, 2011). The organisation uses clear mission and vision statements, underpinned by shared goals and targets to create a collective framework, which in turn shape learning interventions (often utilising individual or group performance development agreements) (Schein, 2004; Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2011). In order to create collective commitment, flexibility and creativity from employees, learning opportunities/interventions must be relatively frequent, as this then creates an enduring capability for change and innovation (Huczynski & Buchanan, 2013).

Whilst this approach is reflected in many large organisations and has the capacity to foster a culture that could maximise the return from tacit knowledge held within the organisation (Knights & Willmott, 2012), the structural emphasis outlined has been criticised. Unless the articulated mission and vision are regularly reviewed to consider the wider business environment and the demands of competitive advantage (Porter, 2004), thinking and learning can become constrained. Consequently, challenge is not encouraged and process/activity is seen as a worthwhile end in itself – ultimately the focus on measureable achievement/innovation can be lost and a blame culture can develop (Seddon, 2008).

<标题>Using organisational learning to manage the development and sharing of knowledge (as articulated by Senge, 1990) has the potential to maintain the competitive advantage required (Newell, Robertson, Scarborough & Swan, 2009). However, to maximise the potential return, “know-why” (such as design rationale and reasoning – the capturing of best practice) must be combined with “know-who” (the mapping of relevant expertise and skills) as well as “know-how” (promoting a learning and development environment in a manner that encourages innovation) (Mullins & Christie, 2013). Efforts to capture the critical aspect of “know-how” has led to the creation of Communities of Practice as an organisational model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1998).

Cross-functional communities of practice seek to utilise the informal, social interaction of the group (rather than rely on structured, mechanistic knowledge transfer mechanisms) to create an engaged learning approach focussed on what needs to be known by the group (Lave & Wenger, 1998). Such groups often have the ability to capture and share vital tacit knowledge which more formal information management systems are often unable to do (Newell et al, 2009). A community of practice recognises that in order to learn and innovate, it is necessary to participate on a more personal level and to create engaged participation, it is necessary for people to feel included in the decision-process, thus allowing a sense of ownership to develop (Easterby-Smith, Burgoyne & Araujo, 1999). In sharing a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, the group/community are proactive in developing their knowledge and expertise, interacting on a regular basis (Wenger, McDermott & Snyder, 2002).

<标题>The perceived “added-value” of effective communities of practice has led to organisations attempting to manage the process by creating groups that cut across organisational boundaries in order to innovate, share knowledge and solve problems (Davenport and Hall, 2002).. However, the mere existence of a structure that brings people together does not ensure that this approach will be effective (Linstead, Fulop & Lilley 2009). Attempting to overly manage or even directly control any Community of Practice could introduce the very constraints that these informal peer-to-peer groups originally sought to work against/around and thus minimise their effectiveness (Eraut, 2002).

Issues and Caveats

Whilst it is possible to gain greater business utility and an enduring competitive advantage from organisational learning approaches, the following aspects need to be considered:

  • Superstitious learning. Where organisations learn the wrong things due to the connections between outcomes and actions being incorrectly specified e.g. rapidly or constantly adapting targets will be close to current performance levels (making being above or below the target an almost chance event) creating a misleading belief that organisational performance has improved.
  • Ambiguity of success. Where the indicators of success are constantly modified or targets continually change, it is difficult to measure what has actually been learned by the organisation even if meeting a goal is seen as a major achievement.
  • Competency Traps. Improving procedures or practices that do not deliver any real competitive advantage can create an illusion of organisational progress. In reality, they expose the company to competitors able to focus on improvements that deliver practical business benefits that meet customer requirements.

(Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006; Cohen & Sproull, 1996).

Essentially, organisational learning relies on knowledge management to capture and convert individual tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge that can be more easily shared with others in the company (Huczynski & Buchanan, 2013). In considering such knowledge management and intellectual capital capture processes in relation to a learning organisation, a number of issues can emerge:

  • Learning organisation ‘positives:
  • A rich, multi-dimensional concept affecting many aspects of organisational behaviour.
  • An innovative approach to learning, knowledge management and investment in intellectual capital.
  • Challenging concepts, focussed on the acquisition of individual and corporate knowledge.
  • An innovative approach to organisation, management and staff development.
  • Innovative application of technology to manage organisational knowledge (e.g. databases, internet and intranets).

<标题>Learning organisation negatives:

  • A complex/diffuse set of practices which can be difficult to implement systematically.
  • Attempts to use dated concepts (from change management and learning theory) re-packaged as management consultancy projects.
  • New approaches to encourage employee compliance with strict directives applied in the guise of ‘self-development’.
  • New/innovative approaches to strengthening management control over staff behaviours.
  • A technology-dependent approach which does not consider how people actually develop and use knowledge in the organisation.

<标题>(Adapted from Huczynski & Buchanan, 2013: 179).

Summary

A learning organisation is defined as an entity that encourages and facilitates the learning and development of people at all levels of the company, values that learning and which simultaneously transforms itself to maintain an enduring competitive advantage (Cole & Kelly, 2011: 487). The best learning organisations are skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge whilst also being able to modify their behaviour(s) to reflect new knowledge and insights (Garvin, 1993: 80). To do so effectively, requires skills in terms of systematic problem solving, experimentation with new approaches, learning from experience and past history, learning from the experiences and best practices of others and the ability to transfer knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organisation (Cole & Kelly, 2011). Unless the methods outlined (above) are able to create a collaborative environment where employees feel empowered to reflect on present practices and to provide improvement suggestions, then they will not provide any real added-value when compared to more traditional/individual learning interventions (Fineman, Gabriel & Sims, 2010).

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利茲大學論文代寫-管理策略改革報告

管理策略變革

<标题>對工作環境的變化,人們總是持有保留態度,因為我們害怕進入未知領域。人類喜歡一直活在舒適區,沒有人喜歡改變,特別是在短時間之內。但是,對于機構來說,想要適應不斷變化的生存環境,并取得成功,改革則是必不可免的。甚至可以說,機構必須學會熱愛改革,以保持競爭優勢。

<标题>Organisations are highly specialized systems and people working within the organisations are generally cynical to change in the work environment as they don’t want to get into uncharted territory. It is the natural tendency of human beings to live in their comfort zone and no one likes to be comfortable being uncomfortable even for a short duration (during the change process).

<标题>But, for organisations to survive and succeed in the current environment change is no longer optional. Organisations have to learn to love change to stay ahead of competition.

  • An overview of change management

<标题>Definition – Change management is about moving from one state to another, specifically, from the problem state to the solved state (Jung, 2001).

But, the organisational terminology for change management can be varied and ‘change’ may be used under different terms. E.g. when a company talks about re-engineering, restructuring, promoting cultural transformation, or keeping pace with the industry, then it is talking about change. Lewin (1951) conceptualized that change can occur at three levels.

  • Change in the individuals who work in the organisation – that is their skills, values, attributes, and eventually behaviour. Leaders have to make sure that such individual behavioural change is always regarded as instrumental to organisational change.
  • Change in the organisational structures and systems – reward systems, reporting relationships, work design and so on.
  • A direct change in the organisation climate or interpersonal style – dealing with people relationships, conflict management and the process of decision making. (Leonard et al., 2003, cited in Mabey & Mayon-White (ed))

Change can be further classified as planned and emergent. When change is deliberate and is a product of conscious reasoning and actions is supposed to be planned. Emergent change is a direct contract to this and unfolds in an apparently spontaneous and unplanned way.

  • Drivers of change

<标题>Change is mostly driven by circumstances and always takes place with a particular goal in mind. Some of the common drivers of change are, to keep pace with the changing environment, to beat competition, technological changes to improve process efficiency etc.

No matter what the driver for change is, the goal of the whole process is to lead the organisation into a future state which is different from the current state under which the organisation operates. (Nicols, 2006) The scope and scale of change can vary. E.g. Change can be limited a particular department (operations, marketing etc.) or it might affect the whole organisation, it might relate to only a group of people or might affect every employee in the organisation.

  • Initiators of change

Irrespective of its nature, change has to be initiated, driven and implemented by someone. This is where leadership fits into the change management process. It has been found that organisations that have been successful in coping with change have strong leadership that guides the team through a series of initial steps that set the stage for success (Nadler, 2001). Leaders are responsible for bringing about change in a staged and planned manner.

<标题>Dirks (2000) points out that change has to be instigated and it is the leader who instigates the change by his vision and persuasion. Nadler, Thies and Nadler (2001) suggest that, for effective change to occur, and in particular cultural change, there is no substitute for the active engagement of the leadership and executive team.

<标题>Top leaders must assume the role of chief architect of the change process. Cartwright and Cooper (1993) take this one step further by suggesting that it is important that employees at all levels become involved in the change process. Jung (2001) also views managers as playing key roles in developing, transforming and institutionalizing organisational culture during the change process.

<标题>For managing an organisation wide change, the leadership has to possess an unusually broad and finely honed set of skills. It needs to have a clear sense of mission and delegate task effectively to build a whole team of ‘change agents’. The structure of the organisation needs to change to one with less internal bureaucracy.

Hatch (2000) suggests that the implementation of any change process often flounders because it is improperly framed by top management. The key to choosing the right approach to change is thus to keep in mind how organisations function. As social systems comprising work, people, formal and informal systems, organisations are inherently resistant to change and designed to neutralize the impact of attempts at change (Chemers, 2001). Leaders play a critical role in selecting and planning appropriate change

  • Reluctance to organisational change

Gofee and Jones (2001) point out that the reluctance to organisational change from employees and other staff is primarily due to the way change is implemented and the abilities of the leader in bringing about the change rather than the nature of change itself. Bridges (1991) believes that it isn’t the actual change that individuals resist, but rather the transition that must be made to accommodate the change.

Organisational change entails change in the work process, culture and the nature of an employee’s working conditions. Psychologists believe that resistance to change is because of people being afraid of the unknown. During times of change, it is important that the leaders of the organisation create an atmosphere of psychological safety for all individuals to engage in the new behaviours and test the waters of the new culture after the change has been implemented.

  • Approaches to change

Change can be classified in a number of ways. The categorization depends on the extent of the change and whether it is seen as organic (often characterized as bottom-up) or driven (top-down). Ackerman’s change classification segregates change into

Developmental change – may be either planned or emergent; it is first order, or incremental. It is change that enhances or corrects existing aspects of an organisation, often focusing on the improvement of a skill or process. (Ackermann, 1997)

<标题>Transitional change – seeks to achieve a known desired state that is different from the existing one. It is episodic, planned and second order, or radical. Transformational change is radical or second order in nature. It requires a shift in assumptions made by the organisation and its members. Transformation can result in an organisation that differs significantly in terms of structure, processes, culture and strategy. It may, therefore, result in the creation of an organisation that operates in developmental mode – one that continuously learns, adapts and improves. (Mabey & Mayon-White (ed), 2003)

  • Implementing change

<标题>It is widely believed that the way an organisation adapts to change is fundamental to its success. In an ever increasing competitive environment, change is ubiquitous and the way employees respond to change (resistance/acceptance) has been identified to play a vital role in the change management process. Managing organisational change requires more than reengineering and restructuring systems and processes. It requires managing the human responses that accompany any organisational change (Darwin et al., 2002).

<标题>For its smooth implementation, the change management process has to be carefully planned and the onus is on the leader to ensure a hassle free implementation through effective and sensible planning, confident and effective decision-making, and regular, complete and timely communication with the employees (Simon & Newell, 2006). Factors such as organisation culture, structure of the organisation, bureaucracy, employee attitudes, business model etc. also play their part in implementing change.

  • Skills needed for effective change implementation

<标题>Authors like Nadler and Thies (2001) have stressed on the importance of problem solving within the change management process and argue that change can only be effectively implemented by good problem solvers. Managing change is seen as a matter of moving from one state to another, specifically, from the problem state to the solved state therefore diagnosis of problems at each stage and coming out with a solution to those problems plays a big part in the change management process (Champy, 2005).

  • Implementation difficulties

<标题>Bringing about major change in a large and complex organisation is a difficult task. Policies, procedures and structures need to be altered. Individuals and groups have to be motivated to continue perform in the face of major turbulence. It is not surprising, therefore, that the process of effectively implementing organisational change has long been a topic that both managers and researchers have pondered (Nadler, cited in Mabey and Mayon-White, 2003).

Beer et al. (2003) believe that most change programs don’t work because they are guided by a theory of change that is fundamentally flawed. The problem with most company-wide change programs is that they address only one or two the crucial factors (coordination, teamwork, commitment, structure of the organisation, organisation culture)

  • Change Management Strategy

<标题>As a part of the strategy, a feasibility analysis needs to be done to assess whether the change the organisation is looking to bring about is feasible considering the present state of the organisation (Huy, 2002). Organisational configurations need to be assessed before deciding on the proper change management strategy.

Change management is a three pronged strategy: transform, reduce and apply. Before the change process is drafted, it is the responsibility of the change initiator / leader for assessing the difference between the current state of affairs and the state accomplished after the change process which Haslam & Platow (2001) terms as the transform state. This is an assessment stage which requires the leaders to assess the goals. After goal assessment, the strategy should be to try to determine ways to narrow the gap through the change process (reduce stage) and subsequently delegate responsibility to play operators (like divisional heads and other departmental leaders) to actually effect the elimination of these differences.

During the change implementation process, the leader should play a key role, firstly, in the identification of the changes necessary to produce the required outcomes and then to put an implementation process in place to bring about those changes.

Champy (2005) believes that the leader is the one responsible for the how, what and why of the change process. It is the leader who should be responsible for identifying how the changes can be effectively implemented with least resistance from employees by taking into consideration the organisation structure and culture. Communication should also form a part of the change management strategy. The change initiator and implementer have to play the role of an effective communicator to inform the employees of the reasons behind the changes.

It has to be remembered that organisations change is always brought about by team work and the change process requires frequent communication with all the members of the organisation. Leadership approach should be to address resistance through increased and sustained communications and education. As a part of the strategy, employees should be encouraged to express their ideas and concerns with regards to the change.

Change management should start with the change manager mobilizing commitment to change through joint diagnosis of business problems. A shared vision of how to organize and manage competitiveness needs to be developed. Consensus has to be fostered for the new vision. Once there is a consensus, leaders and change agents should have the competence to enact it and the cohesion to move it along. The change management process and the strategy have to revitalize all departments without pushing change from the top. As a part of the implementation strategy, the leader should monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process.

Also, all too often change agents try to completely change the culture of the organisations within the change management process. The strategy should be to try to control the culture rather than influence it. Leaders don’t have to drive the change but supervise it. Change has to be implemented and driven by the people who get affected by the change. Mumford et al. (2002) point out that the reluctance to organisational change from employees and other staff is primarily due to the way change is implemented and the abilities of the leader in bringing about the change rather than the nature of change itself. Changing the culture of an organisation should be a gradual transformation process.

Change management strategy should ensure that much of the task is delegated to the departments and leadership is mainly concerned in coordinating between the departments. It has to be made sure that the departments understand the importance of change through their effective, timely and regular communication. Departmental heads should be made to realize the importance of establishing a sense of urgency and enthusiasm about the change. Change should never try to be rushed.

<标题>Communication between organisational members, at all levels, from management and among peers, should be a major priority in any change process. A feeling of ‘No Consultation’ occurs among employees is they are not properly communicated; therefore ‘consultative’ leadership should be followed during the change process. Transparency and trust also form a very important part of the change management process.

<标题>As a part of the change management strategy, leaders need to select carefully the method or approach to be used to manage the change process and develop a new culture following the change. They have to establish effective channels of communication which involve individuals at all levels of the organisation to inform individuals of the stages to be followed and to outline clearly outcomes for them.

<标题>Above all, they need to lead in a positive manner, recognizing that change is an emotive process and people need to be ‘changed’ with dignity by acknowledging contributions and justifying the reasons for them personally to move on.

<标题>Word of caution – Even though, bringing about a change is important for organisations to stay competitive in the global market environment, organisations have to bear in mind that they don’t thrust change on their employees. The infrastructure for implementation of change management has to be ready before the implementation. The change process has to be correctly configured and the need for change has to be clearly communicated to the employees who will be affected by it.

Conclusions

<标题>An organisation is a complex entity and bringing about a change is an equally complex ordeal. Orchestrating a companywide change process is a delicate balance which requires able leadership. Effective leader make the change process easy for themselves and the organisation. But, playing a leadership role within the change process is far from easy.

  • Not only do leaders have a responsibility to lead, but as an employee they have to deal with change themselves. Therefore, it is very important for leaders themselves to understand the benefits of the change process and how change is going to be implemented. They shouldn’t get wrapped up in bringing about the change just for the sake of changing.
  • Planned implementation of the change process is utmost important. Change should not be imposed on the employees without proper planning and consideration given to the organisation culture. Planning requires coordination and leaders need to coordinate between departments to successfully plan the change.
  • Organisations should not try to change too much too soon and need to take a staged approach to change. Change should be a well thought process and implemented in a planned and systematic manner.
  • Everyone in the organisation should be adequately informed and listened to before embarking on the cultural change process. Finkelstein & Hambrick (1996) point out that the task of change management is to bring order to a messy situation, not pretend that it’s already well organized and disciplined and leadership is hugely responsible for bringing that semblance of order.
  • Companies also need to have the right approach and mind step to deal with the change process. Successful organisations drive change rather than being driven by the change. Although, the strategic decision to change comes from the top management but the implementation should always be a bottom up process. HP’s didn’t get either of those decisions right; its decision to change came too late (when Dell had already gained ground and had the first over advantage) due to which it tried to impose the change from top down.

It is worth mentioning that change management strategy adopted is also reliant on the type of organisation. Different organisations may need to approach change differently and the type of change management approach adopted should be consistent with the objectives of the organisation and its situation. For example, an organisation whose future depended on improving customer service should, logically, adopt a change model focused on improving processes that have a direct bearing on that objective and removing obstacles that prevent its achievement. This is because; a disjunction between the objective and the mechanism would result in untoward or unwanted results.

References

<标题>Books and Journals

Ackerman, D (1997) A natural history of senses, London, Financial Times

Adler, Nancy J. (2003) (third edition). International dimensions of organisational behavior. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.

Bacal, R (2006) How to manage performance (Mighty Manager), New York, Harvard Business School Press

Bluedorn, A. C. (2000). ‘Time and organisational culture’. In: N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. E. Wilderom and M. F. Peterson (eds), Handbook of Organisational Culture and Climate, pp. 117–129. Sage Publications, London.

<标题>Brown, M. C. 2002. Organisational Performance: The succession effect. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27: 1–16.

Chemers, M. M. (2001). ‘Leadership effectiveness: An integrative review’. In: M. A. Hogg and S. Tindale (eds), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Group processes, pp. 376–399. Blackwell, Maulden, MA.

Champy, J. (1995). Reengineering Management: The Mandate for New Leadership. Harper Business, New York.

<标题>Child, John. (2001). Culture, contingency and capitalism in the cross-national study of organisations. In L.L. Cummings & B.M. Staw, Research in organisational behavior, 3: 303-56. New York: JAI.

Conger, J. and R. Kanugo (1987). ‘Toward a behavioural theory of charismatic leadership in organisational settings,’ Academy of Management Review, 12, pp. 637–647.

Dirks, K. T. 2000. Trust in leadership and team performance: Evidence from NCAA basketball. Journal of Applied Psychology,85: 1004–1012.

<标题>Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. 1996. Strategic leadership: Top executives and their effect on organisations. St. Paul: West Educational Publishing.

<标题>Goffee, R. and G. Jones (2001). ‘Organisational culture: a sociological perspective’. In C. L. Cooper, S. Carwright and P. C. Earley, The International Handbook of Organisational

Culture. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.

Harrison, R.C (1972) When power conflicts trigger team spirit. European Business, Spring, 27-65

Haslam, S. A. and M. J. Platow (2001). ‘Your wish is our command: the role of shared social identity in translating a leader’s vision into followers’ action’. In: M. A. Hogg and

<标题>D. Terry (eds), Social identity processes in organisations, pp. 213–228. Psychology Press, New York.

Hatch, M. J. (2000). ‘The cultural dynamics of organizing and change’. In: N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. E. Wilderom and M. F. Peterson (eds), Handbook of Organisational Culture and Climate, pp. 245–261. Sage Publications Inc., London.

<标题>Herscovitch, L. and J. P. Meyer (2002). ‘Commitment to organisational change: Extension of a three-component model’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, pp. 474–487.

Huy, Q. N. (2002). ‘Emotional balancing of organisational continuity and radical change: The contribution of middle managers’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, pp. 31–69.

<标题>Jones,G & Goffee, R (2001)Why should anyone be led by you, New York, Harvard Business School Press

<标题>Jung, D. (2001). ‘Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups’, Creativity Research Journal, 13, pp. 185–195.

<标题>Lewin, K (1951). Frontiers in group dynamics, Human Relations,1, 5-41

Mabey,C & Mayon-White, B (2003) Managing Change (2nd<标题> edn.), London, PCP Publishing

Mumford, M. D., G. M. Scott, B. Gaddis and J. M. Strange (2002). ‘Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertize and relationships’, Leadership Quarterly, 13, pp. 705–750.

Nadler, D. A., P. K. Thies and M. B. Nadler (2001). ‘Culture Change in the Strategic enterprize: Lessons from the Field’. In: C. L. Cooper, S. Carwright and P. C. Earley, The International Handbook of Organisational Culture and Climate John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.

Websites

<标题>Nicols,F (2006) Change Management http://home.att.net/~OPSINC/change.pdf> Date accessed 21/03/2007

<标题>The institute of Direct Marketing (2006) Leadership, change management and corporate culture Nicols,F (2006) Change Management http://home.att.net/~OPSINC/change.pdf> Date accessed 20/05/2007

<标题>Types of change (2006) University of Luton Study http://www.effectingchange.luton.ac.uk/types_of_change/pdf/types.pdf Date accessed 20/05/2007

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論文代寫-如何確立論文主題

論文主題

<标题>論文的主題是指你要表達的觀點,圍繞這個主題展開一系列的論證。就像選擇題,選擇其中一個,再圍繞這個選擇進行說教。同學們在寫論文的時候關鍵的一個步驟就是要確定主題,主題確定了才能根據主題去查找文獻確定論文大綱。主題在文章中處于核心地位,是文章的“靈魂”和“統帥”。一篇文章質量高低、價值大小,主題是其衡量的主要尺度,那么留學生在確立主題時,需要注意些什么呢又該如何確定論文主題呢?

首先,我們來討論下確立主題時,應該注意什么?

<标题>1、符合現實需要。文章是時代的產物、現實的反映,它的主題應體現出那個時代的特征及發展方向。因此,畢業論文應牢牢把握時代脈膊,回答時代提出的最尖銳、最迫切、最現實的問題,以推動社會向前發展。作為大學生,選擇論文的主題,盡量要在自己本專業的進行確定,這樣不僅在查找文件內容的時候更加方便,而且可以對自己四年的大學生活進行一個總結,專業度也能夠得到相應的提升,這對于未來工作崗位上的能力也有很好的積累。

<标题>2、反映客觀事物本質。文章是對客觀事物的認識和反映,但并不是像鏡子那樣機械地反照現實,而應當反映客觀事物的某種本質,揭示其內部的規律性。

3、要有獨到的見解。只有獨到的見解,才能使人受到啟發,令人感奮,于人有益。什么是“獨到的見解”?就是古人所說的“見人所未見,發人所未發”,“人人心中皆有,人人筆下俱無”的思想、認識、意見、主張。要獲得獨到的見解,關鍵在于多思。其次,要有膽識,敢于標新立異。指導教師要指導學員站在時代的高度,深入事物的本質,多思深思,確立有現實意義;有獨到見解、有理論深度的主題。但是有一點需要注意,標新立異,并不代表你要選擇比較冷門的主題。很多人為了彰顯自己的個性,同時為了能夠引起導師的注意,或是降低查重率,在選擇論文主題的時候都會選擇一些比較古怪,同時論證起來也比較困難的主題;其實這無疑是給自己挖了一個大坑,完全沒有必要通過這樣的方式來彰顯自己的個性,其實對于論證的內容查找得更為豐富,這樣才能夠提升整個論文質量。

4、選擇主題之后,就要針對這個主題進行充分的內容論證,不要寫著寫著就跑題了,或者是讓自己論文成為一個標題黨,主題和內容完全沒有太大的關系,而且不是跑題了,根本就是用一個嘩眾取寵的標題來吸引大家,千萬不要冒險。

主題的確立需要保持一種問題意識,那么,如何產生這種問題意識?有些人是在課堂上或研討會上產生了靈感,也有些是自己主動尋找問題。有的通過閱讀文獻等各種資料也能夠找到論文主題。當同學們對論文主題猶豫不決時,不妨先通過搜尋資料再做確定。通過OPAC等各種檢索系統可以搜索到很多資料,一些重要文獻資料可以尋求老師的幫助。通過閱讀搜尋到的資料和資料后的參考文獻,檢索主題相關的資料,還可以看看相關學會、研討會的草稿集和論文集。閱讀論文一開始對英語為非母語的留學生來說有點困難,不妨可以先看看簡單的草稿集或書籍。當發現想寫的主題,再進行深入研究。這里同學們需要注意,由于自己的主觀臆想或無知,在主題判斷上仍有不足,尋求朋友和老師的意見就顯得尤為重要。總的來說,我們在需要確定主題的時候,要充分結合研究主題自身的學術價值和寫作者自身的研究興趣和能力。說道這里你可能不太清楚其中的涵義,別著急,在下文中,我將為你詳細說明。

  • 充分考慮自身興趣
  • <标题>做研究寫論文是一個相對耗時費力的過程,寫作者要花相當一段時間接觸并研究這個論文主題: 從看書、找資料,到分析撰寫,如果沒有興趣,必定事倍功半。興趣是一切行為的動力,有了興趣才能發揮潛能并提供貢獻,那些在別人眼里極其枯燥的研究主題,之于你來說才能非常有吸引力。你只有對該研究主題有持久的興趣,才能毫不懈怠,積極地完成它。那么該怎么做呢?在你確定選題之前,回憶一下你在課堂上學習的知識內容,哪些課程是你最期待的,而哪些課程是你覺得枯燥的?如果有做筆記的習慣,可以通讀課堂筆記,思考在課堂上或者講座中你感覺有意思的東西。如若沒有,可以瀏覽自己所學專業領域內重要的學術期刊,比如查看最近兩三年以來每期的目錄,看是否有引起你興趣的題目,或許很多主題是你感興趣的,只是沒有意識到而已。所以,在選擇論文題目的時候,請多回憶相關的內容,多瀏覽相關的文章,多思考相關的問題。當然在你回憶或者瀏覽學術期刊的時候,不要忘記記錄下你認為你感興趣的每一個你能夠、愿意或者可能研究的題目;并時刻記錄你認為有價值的想法。這樣,在最后你可以對比你所記錄的所有題目,比較哪個題目更有吸引了,哪個題目更具可行性,哪個題目更有學術價值。通過綜合比較,初步選定你認為要從事的一個或幾個研究主題。

  • 從自身研究能力出發,對所選題目應有一定認識
  • <标题>作學術研究的人,對所選擇的題目必須要了解適當的背景。在寫論文之前,雖不一定需要對所選的題目完全內行,但你必須有適當的準備。譬如要從事有關領導力對中小企業發展的影響的研究,必須對領導力及中小企業管理要有適當的認識。或者你可能對媒體娛樂化現象感興趣,并試圖去分析和解釋為什么會出現這種現象。這個時候你就需要對媒體和政治、經濟、文化等諸多方面有一定了解。因為在解釋某一現象的時候,往往需要考慮某些重要的變量,比如性別、教育程度、政治傾向等,沒有這些知識的積累,你很難清楚的解釋這種現象。同時要注意所選題目是否涉及外國語文,如果對所研究題目的外國語文沒有相當基礎,僅知道本國或地區的文字,以致材料不能蒐集齊全,則觀點自然流于褊狹,研究時所遭遇的困難必然增多。比如,你可能對北京和倫敦發展創意產業不同戰略比較感興趣,并試圖制定相關的策略或提出富有建設性的意見,這可以說是一項具有挑戰性的研究工作。因為你在參考大量中文文獻的同時,還要瀏覽大量關于城市創意產業發展策略外國語文的文獻。此外,研究現代的社會科學及自然科學都需要適當的研究工具,諸如統計方法等,如果從事這類統計調查資料的研究,沒有適當的訓練,必然是吃力而不討好。總之,你可以根據你的能力和特長選擇從事不同目的的研究工作。

  • 衡量研究主題的可行性
  • 研究主題的可行性在很多時候取決于研究主題本身和其他客觀條件。關于研究主題本身,我們建議,不管你在哪個領域進行選擇,也不管你選擇哪個主題,研究主題要切實際,要有重點。主題太大,會導致概括籠統的陳說,不容易得到明確的結論,也找不出重心所在,其結果必然言之無物,漫無目標,一無是處。比如有同學曾經決定撰寫“Research on the Chinese economic development”,然而,對于個人而言,這個選題顯然是不具備可行性的。對于經濟研究,你可以從類別和時段兩個角度來加以限定,比如把題目縮小為“Research on the current situation of economic development of China’s state-owned enterprises”,這樣題目就大大縮小了,當然,你還可以繼續縮小這個題目,比如“新時代側供給改革背景下中國國有企業經濟發展現狀研究”。這也就是定義研究對象的過程。因為,撰寫學位論文不同于編著專著或者教科書,它需要有一個明確的研究對象和研究問題,而論文始終是要圍繞這個問題展開,而不是空泛無關注點的討論。論文主題有重點,材料才容易搜集整理,觀點亦易集中,往往可以從詳細的研究而達到超越前人知識領域的創境。

  • 所選主題要新穎致用,能夠展示你獨到見解
  • 學術研究的目的,有繼往開來的意義和價值,任何研究論文都應以致用為目的,所以選擇題目,必須新穎實際,能夠展示你獨到見解。因此,理論與實用必須相互為用。如果論文的題目能對新問題從事新的研究,發現新的學理,創造新的原則,那是再好不過了。不過,我們也可以用新的方法研究老問題。研究老問題時必須首先反問,這個問題是否有再研究的價值?資料是否已有增加?前人研究這個問題的方法是否仍然可行?

    <标题>此外要注意不宜選太新的題目,因為題目太新,資料往往不足,無法深入討論,很可能迫使作者半途而廢。同時一篇研究報告必須要有事實依據,需要參考許多不同的資料,不能憑空杜撰。

  • 與同學和導師時刻溝通
  • 在確定選題的過程中,跟導師和同學保持溝通很重要。導師能夠從各個方面給你諸多建議。除了導師之外,你可以跟對該研究主題有所了解的其他人保持溝通,包括你的同學。你要知道,每個人看待問題的視角總是存在這樣或那樣的差別,而別人看待問題的視覺可能正是你從事該研究最需要的東西。這一點我相信每個同學都了解,所以就不再贅述。

    <标题>以上便是我對如何確定一個適合自己去研究的論文主題的看法,看完此篇文章,你是不是有了些許啟發呢,希望此文能幫助到你!

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    桑德蘭大學會計與金融管理論文例文-Ratio Analysis

    會計論文代寫

    鑒于會計與金融已經成為近些年的熱門專業,君道論文小編為大家提供一些金融與會計管理的論文。此篇例文是以桑德蘭大學會計與管理專業的論文范本。

    寫作要求是一個具體的情景(這也是國外大學經常會遇到的情況,通常會把同學們放到一定情境中來解決實際問題,培養學生的實際解決問題的能力)。這里同學們假設是一名financial manager at Lynam PLC, a garden tool manufacturer. 董事會查閱了公司近兩年的財務報表,并集中關注于公司的盈利能力和償債能力(profitability and liquidity)。公司近兩年的財務報表如下:

    <标题>根據以上情景,學生需要完成下列兩個任務:

    <标题>1.Prepare a report for the Board of Directors that evaluates the performance of Lynam PLC in relation to profitability, liquidity, gearing and asset utilisation. Your report must be supported by the calculation of relevant ratios in the four evaluation areas mentioned above.

    2.Calculate the Working Capital Cycle in days for Lynam PLC based on the information above, assuming 365 days, for the years 2015 and 2014 AND briefly comment on the company’s liquidity position in 2015 compared to 2014. (round to the nearest day)

    All calculations should be clearly shown including all appropriate workings, and should be made to the nearest £000 or two decimal places where required.

    <标题>了解了要求,我們就要開始具體的寫作:

    Part A; Lynam Plc Financial Analysis

    <标题>This has evaluated the financial health of Lynam Plc in terms of liquidity, profitability, working capital cycle and asset utilizations for the two financial years, 2014, and 2015. The findings of this evaluation are depicted in the following subheadings.

    1.1 Lynam Plc’s Profitability Evaluation

    <标题>Lynam Plc’s profitability as depicted by financial ratios such as return on capital employed, return on equity, gross profit margin and net profit margin is as reflected in the table below.

    Table 1; Lynam Plc’s Profitability Ratios

    <标题>The findings of the above evaluation reveals that Lynam Plc’s profitability has declined between 2014 and 2015.  First the decline in profitability is exhibited by the decline in gross profit margin ratio from 43.83% in financial period 2014 to 40.67% in financial year 2015.  This decline could be attributed to two aspects. First, Lynam Plc’s gross profit margin decreased because of 12.90% increase in cost of sales in financial period 2015. Secondly, the direct costs such as cost of sales increased at a relatively higher rate (12.9%) than firm’s revenue (6.89%), thus having a huge offseting effect on the firm’s gross profit. Moreover, the decline in Lynam Plc’s profitability is also depicted by a decline of ROCE from 22.84% in year 2014 to 19.38% in year ending 2015. Similarly, Lynam’s net profit margin decreased from 11.32% in year 2014 to 7.87% in year 2015.  The decline in ROCE and net profit margin ratio can be attributed to escalation in Lynam’s operational costs as well as depreciatin expensses from the 2014 to 2015. Moreover, the analysis of Lynam’s balance sheet also revealed that its interest expenses increased, an outcome of the acquisition of more debt capital. The decline in firm’s net profit margin has also resulted into massive cut in shareholder returns. This is depicted by the decrease in return on equity capital from 52.20% in year 2014 to 37.91% in year 2015. Overall, as revealed by the analysis, the decline of Lynam Plc’s profitability is an outcome of heightened interest expenses, operational costs as well as cost of sales.

    1.2 Lynam Plc’s Liquidity Evaluation

    The ability of Lynam Plc to execute or offset its working capital activities was evaluated using the quick ratio and current ratio. The findings are reflected in the able below.

    Table 2; Lynam’s Liquidity Ratios

    <标题>From the above evaluation, it is clear that Lynam Plc’s liquidity increased amid the 2014-2015 financial periods. First, this is exhibited by an increase in the current ratio from 1.55 to 1.77 amid the 2014 and 2015 periods respectively. From the analysis of Lynam Plc’s balance sheet, the increase in current ratio can be attributed to two factors. First, it’s the increase in firm’s trade receivables and inventories in the 2014-2015 financial periods. In this case, increase firm’s trade receivables could be an outcome of less stringent credit policy. On this note, Airout (2017) asserts that the enhancement in firm’s inventories and trade receivables is an indication of firm’s reduced efficiency in selling its products as well as in collecting its debts from its debtors. The increased liquidity of Lynam Plc could also be explained by the revamped acid-test ratio or quick ratio from 0.83 to 0.93 amid the 2014-2015 financial periods. This is an indication that Lynam Plc is depending more on its liquid assets than non-liquid assets in financing its working capital operations.

    1.3 The Evaluation of Lynam Plc’s gearing

    According to Ojo (2014), gearing ascertains the proportions of debt and equity capital, which is used in financing firm’s investment decisions. In doing so, the analysis of firm’s gearing is able to reveal the susceptibility of the firm to risks such as insolvency or bankruptcy risks. The gearing of Lynam Plc amid the 2014-2015 financial period is reflected in the table below.

    Table 3; Lynam Plc’s Gearing Ratios

    From the above evaluation, it is vivid that Lynam Plc is highly geared. This means that the company uses more of debt capital than equity capital to fund its investment decisions. This is depicted by a gearing ratio, which is above the 50% threshold in 2014 and 2015. Secondly, the increase in the gearing ratio from 74.98% to 76.60% amid the 2014-2015 financial periods can be attributed to intense borrowing of long term loans in 2015. Also, from the above evaluation, it is clear that Lynam Plc experienced a decrease in its interest coverage ratio from 5.42 to 2.90 amid the 2014-2015 financial periods. The decline in interest coverage ratio insinuates that the ability of the firm to offset its interest expenses of long-term loans is declining. From the analysis of Lynam Plc’ income statement, it is clear that the decline in interest coverage ratio can be attributed to decline in its operating profit, which an outcome of heightened operating expenses. 

    1.4 Asset Utilization

    According to Merville and Tavis (2013), asset utlization mirrors the efficiency deployed by the firm in making use of its assets to generate ample returns or profits. The asset utlization of Lynam Plc is depicted in the table below.

    Table 4; Lynam Plc’s Asset Utilization

    From the above evaluation, the Lynam’s days sales outstanding escalated from 56 days in the year ending 2014 to 66 days in the year ending 2015. According to Knight (2012), days’ sales outstanding is a financial metric that ascertains how well company’s receivables are being managed. The rise in days’ sales outstanding at Lynam Plc is an indication that over the last two years (2014 and 2015) majority of sales in that company are made on credit.  This is depicted an increment in trade receivables. Also, from the above evaluation, Lynam Plc’s days’ inventory outstanding decreased from 120 days in the year 2014 to 119 days in the financial year 2015.  According to Migiro (2014), days’ inventory outstanding is a financial metric that ascertain the number of days taken by the company to dispose its inventories to its actual buyers. As such, there was a margnal improvement in Lynam Plc’s efficiency in converting its stocks into sales amid the 2014 and 2015 financial periods. The analyis in table 4 also depicts that there was a reduction in the days’ payables outstanding from 71 days to 56 days amid the 2014 and 2015 financial periods respectively. According to Osipenkova (2016), days’ payables outstanding elucidate the period taken by the firm to payoff its creditors. The reduction in days payables outstanding is a good sign at Lynam Plc since the management can be able to establish an amicable relationship with firm’s suppliers. According to Pacurari and Muntean (2008), an establishment of an amicable relationship between the firm and the supplier nullifies any chnaces of halting the production process because of inefficiencies in supply of raw materials. 

    1.5 Working Capital Cycle

    The working capital cycle of Lynam Plc is exhibited in the table below.

    Table 5; Lynam Plc’s Working Capital Cycle

    The analysis in the above table reveals a worsening working capital cycle. This is because it escalated from 105 days to 129 days amid the 2014-2015 financial periods. According to Tran, Lin and Nguyen (2016), an increasing working capital cycle mirrors the diminishing ability of the firm to offset its daily operations since most of its finances are tied to inventories or trade receivables. This implies the company’s

     For this reason, Lynam Plc need to adopt intensive marketing strategies in order to foster fast movement of its products from its inventories to the market. Also, Lynam needs to adopt a stringent credit policy in order to enhance the collection of money from its debtors.

    <标题>當然,這個例文只是寫作的一部分,想要了解更多關于會計與金融論文的寫作,可以@我們君道論文的客服喲